Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the absence of page numbers, but often, these sorts of entries do not require a page number in the parenthetical citation. For electronic and Internet sources, follow the following guidelines:. Filmverlag der Autoren, In the first example, the writer has chosen not to include the author name in-text; however, two entries from the same author appear in the Works Cited.
Russell, Tony, et al. To cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference, separate the citations by a semi-colon:. When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference, like so Common sense and ethics should determine your need for documenting sources.
You do not need to give sources for familiar proverbs, well-known quotations or common knowledge. Remember that citing sources is a rhetorical task, and, as such, can vary based on your audience. If you're writing for an expert audience of a scholarly journal, for example, you may need to deal with expectations of what constitutes "common knowledge" that differ from common norms.
Purdue Online Writing Lab. Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" Wordsworth Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process Human beings have been described by Kenneth Burke as "symbol-using animals" 3.
We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has "more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change.
Marx and Engels described human history as marked by class struggles 79; ch. Relativity's theoretical foundations can be traced to earlier work by Faraday and Maxwell Einstein Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children R.
Miller 12 , others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration A. Best and Marcus argue that one should read a text for what it says on its surface, rather than looking for some hidden meaning 9. According to Franck et al.
The authors claim that one cause of obesity in the United States is government-funded farm subsidies Franck et al. Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children "Too Soon" 38 , though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year "Hand-Eye Development" Murray states that writing is "a process" that "varies with our thinking style" Write to Learn 6.
Additionally, Murray argues that the purpose of writing is to "carry ideas and information from the mind of one person into the mind of another" A Writer Teaches Writing 3. Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be "too easy" Elkins, "Visual Studies" Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures," each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle New Jerusalem Bible , Ezek.
Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers, and they don't do that well" qtd. During the shooting of Fitzcarraldo , Herzog and Kinski were often at odds, but their explosive relationship fostered a memorable and influential film. During the presentation, Jane Yates stated that invention and pre-writing are areas of rhetoric that need more attention. The Purdue OWL is accessed by millions of users every year.
Common Words that Sound Alike Numbers: Text Elements Visual Rhetoric: Process and Materials Overview: An Introduction Researching Programs: Practical Considerations Researching Programs: Drafting Your Statement Statements of Purpose: The Basics In-Text Citations: Basic Rules Reference List: Articles in Periodicals Reference List: Other Print Sources Reference List: Electronic Sources Reference List: Organization and Structure Graduate Writing Workshops: Introductions Graduate Writing Workshops: Literature Reviews Graduate Writing Workshops: Style Graduate Writing Workshops: Editing and Proofreading Graduate Writing Workshops: Copyright and Plagiarism Collaborative Authorship Handout: For this style, after every paraphrase, you include the surname of the author and the date of writing.
Sargeant, at the end of the sentence. This will allow any readers to find your work in the reference list and check the original source for themselves. There are a few variations, especially with electronic information, but they all follow the same basic structure.
If the author has written more than one paper in the same year, then you can use an alphabetical appendix:. Some departments prefer it if you also use page numbers, if possible.
The other difficulty is when there is no author mentioned, and the source was written by an organization. In this case, you use the name of the organization or a recognized abbreviation. The exact abbreviation does not matter too much, as long as it is clear in the bibliography.
The same is true of many electronic sources, although be careful that any non-attributed source is reliable. For multiple authors, it is usual to mention them all the first time, but to use 'et al. If there are six or more authors, you can use the abbreviation straightaway.
Occasionally, you may have to use a source that has been referenced in another source. If you can, try to find the original source and use that. If you cannot obtain this source, then you need to use a two-stage referencing system.
Sorgheloos, , as cited in Sargeant, This makes it clear that you could not access the original work, and that you correctly attribute the original findings to the researcher who actually performed the initial research. A few standards, such as Chicago style and the Council of Biology Editors BCE use a footnote numbering system, where a number is used and cross-referenced with the endnote section and bibliography:.
Although most word processors provide an automatic system of doing this, the added complexity, and the way that it makes the paper unwieldy for the reader, means that it is falling out of fashion. It is always best to over cite, and avoid accusations of plagiarism , but there are a few times that citation is not necessary.
General knowledge, such as 'Crick and Watson discovered the structure of DNA,' will not need referencing. Common knowledge in the field is generally fine, too, although you should err on the side of caution. If you use class notes, some lecturers are not too worried about citations, although it is usually good practice to find a source saying the same information, from a textbook or journal. Check out our quiz-page with tests about:.
Martyn Shuttleworth Oct 15, Retrieved Sep 10, from Explorable. The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4. You can use it freely with some kind of link , and we're also okay with people reprinting in publications like books, blogs, newsletters, course-material, papers, wikipedia and presentations with clear attribution. Learn how to construct, style and format an Academic paper and take your skills to the next level.
Don't have time for it all now?
This section contains resources on in-text citation and the References page, as well as APA sample papers, slide presentations, and the APA classroom poster. MLA Style. These OWL resources will help you learn how to use the Modern Language Association (MLA) citation and format style.
APA Research Paper Format. APA (American Psychological Association) research paper format is often used in papers related to psychology and social sciences. In this citation, there is a general format in referencing through endnotes/footnotes, in-text, and reference pages. Academic papers in APA citation has general writing guidelines.
We provide custom research papers written to provide you the research paper help that you need. How to cite APA research paper The APA or the American Psychological Association developed a referencing style called the APA style. How do I cite a research paper with no authors but to organizing parties? There are over one hundred authors. by Unclear on Aug 30, If you have a source with seven or more authors you list the first six followed by an ellipses () and the last author.
Dec 21, · How to Cite a Research Paper. Five Methods: Citation Help APA Chicago MLA AMA Community Q&A. When writing a paper for a research project, you may need to cite a research paper you used as a reference. The basic information included in your citation will be the same across all styles%(1). Citing References in the Body (Intro and Discussion) of the Paper Throughout the body of your paper (primarily the Intro and Discussion), whenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information.