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Glossary of Electrical Engineering Terms

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❶From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Similarly, thermocouples use the Peltier-Seebeck effect to measure the temperature difference between two points.

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Views Read Edit View history. This page was last edited on 25 July , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Part of a series on. A clock is used to read data from a DRAM. DDR memory reads data on both the rising and falling edge of the clock, achieving a faster data rate.

Often used in notebook computers because it also consumes less power. Varying the clock rate changes the frequency. Variations in rate and changes to a gain factor can modulate the signal. Debounce Electrical contacts in mechanical pushbutton switches often make and break contact several times when the button is first pushed. A debouncing circuit removes the resulting ripple signal, and provides a clean transition at its output. It includes secure authenticators, security managers, and secure microcontrollers.

DeepCover Secure Microcontrollers integrate advanced physical security to offer the highest level of protection against physical tampering and reverse engineering. DeepCover Security Managers combine advanced physical security with on-chip, nonimprinting memory to safeguard sensitive data from the slightest physical or environmental tampering.

DeepCover Secure Authenticators implement advanced physical security to provide the ultimate in low-cost IP protection, clone prevention, and peripheral authentication. Delta-Sigma An analog-to-digital converter ADC architecture consisting of a 1-bit ADC and filtering circuitry which over-samples the input signal and performs noise-shaping to achieve a high-resolution digital output.

The architecture is relatively inexpensive compared to other ADC architectures. Sometimes called a "sigma-delta" converter. Examples include the addition of test points, parametric measurement devices, self-test diagnotics, test modes, and scan design. Deterministic Jitter Reproducible jitter within a given system, under controlled conditions. Also known as bounded jitter. DG Differential gain Differential Remote Output Sensing Uses a Kelvin connection at a remote location to sense the output voltage and better control the voltage at that point.

Differential Signaling Most electrical signals are single-ended, comprised of a single wire and ground. Differential signals use two wires which are the inverse of each other -- when one swings positive, the other swings negative in equal magnitude. The receiving circuit looks only at the difference between the two, ignoring any common-mode voltage.

This "push-pull" arrangement reduces the impact of electrical interference because external noise will affect both wires equally and the common-mode rejection will ignore the noise. RS, RS, professional audio signal standards especially for microphones , the signal lines employed by Ethernet, and the standard twisted-pair analog telephone POTS line. Also see the tutorial, Understanding Common-Mode Signals. Digital Log Pot Digital logarithmic potentiometer.

Digital Pot Digital potentiometer: A solid-state device that emulates a mechanical potentiometer, it is usually controlled via a simple interface. DSP circuits can replace traditional analog functions, such as filtering and more complex functions that are difficult to accomplish in the analog domain. Most commonly, a semiconductor consisting of a P-N junction, but dioides can also be realized using vacuum tube, point-contact, metal-semiconductor junction Schottky , and other technologies.

Distortion In systems that handle electrical signals, distortion is a generally unwanted change in the signal. Not all signal alterations are considered distortion. For instance, a uniform delay or a linear attenuation or amplification would generally not be considered distortion. A small amount of random noise is added to the analog input signal. This added noise causes the digital output to randomly toggle between two adjacent codes, thereby avoiding thresholding effect.

DIU Digital interface unit Diversity In radio systems, diversity is a method of improving the reliability and capacity by using multiple communication channels to carry each signal.

A scheme which reads or writes data directly to memory, bypassing the processor and the processor bus. A language that allows data to be manipulated in a database.

Measuring instrument or VOM e. A specification that appears in data-converter datasheets. DNL measures the deviation from the ideal. An ideal converter has the code exactly the same size, and a DNL of 0 zero. A standard for delivering data over cable TV systems, typically for subscriber Internet access services. Down Converters A device which provides frequency conversion to a lower frequency, e. A voltage on the gate controls the current flow between the source and drain.

Random-Access Memory that uses a continuous clock. Mandated in many countries, they automatically switch on when the key is turned and are intended for daytime use, to increase the visibility of the automobile.

They are typically built with LEDs. The device is baked and immediately sealed in a vacuum-sealed bag. This process is reserved for package types which are especially susceptible to moisture intrusion. There is no price adder associated with drypacking products with MSL 2 or above. DSL A mechanism for providing high-speed digital communications e. Internet access over a standard phone line. A transmission technology used in WLAN wireless LAN transmissions where a data signal at the sending station is combined with a higher data-rate bit sequence, or chipping code, that divides the user data according to a spreading ratio.

Each digit is encoded as the sum of two sine wave bursts, of different frequencies. The two-tone method was chosen because it can be reliably distinguished from voice and normal phone conversations are highly unlikely to falsely trigger the DTMF receiver. Dual Mode Two modes of operation. In power circuits, the IC can deliver either a fixed 5V or an adjustable 1. Maxim Integrated trademarked term. Dual Phase Controller Switching regulator that employs dual-phase technique to reduce output noise and boost output current capability.

Dual-Band Dual-band refers to the capability of GSM network infrastructure and handsets to operate across two frequency bands. This low-frequency signal is then further divided by the main counter to the desired channel-spacing frequency which is then fed to the phase detector to form the closed feedback loop in frequency synthesizers. The technology by which the frequencies of light carried on a single optical fiber are subdivided into discrete wavelengths, allowing for the greater transmission of data.

E1 Wide-area, digital transmission scheme, used predominantly in Europe, that carries data at a rate of 2. E1 lines can be leased for private use from common carriers. E2 A line that carries four multiplexed E1 signals with a data rate of 8. E3 Wide-area, digital transmission scheme used predominantly in Europe that carries data at a rate of E3 lines can be leased for private use from common carriers.

Chip-level modulation devices often integrated into hybrid transponder devices, alongside lasers. ECB Electrically controlled birefringence ECL Emitter-coupled logic ECM Electret capacitor microphone EconoReset The simplest form of microprocessor supervisory circuit, it monitors the power supply for the microprocessor and provides only a power-on reset function.

EconOscillators replace crystal-based oscillators. They need no external crystals or timing components. EconOscillator product index for additional descriptions, features, etc. An enhanced modulation technique designed to increase network capacity and data rates in GSM networks. EDGE should provide data rates up to Kbps. Among other things, the EIA sponsors electrical and electronic standards.

Often, the computer is relatively invisible to the user, without obvious applications, files, or operating systems. Examples of products with invisible embedded systems are the controller that runs a microwave oven or the engine control system of a modern automobile.

The ability of electronic equipment to be a "good electromagnetic neighbor": It neither causes, nor is susceptible to, electromagnetic interference within the limits of applicable standards.

Unwanted noise from electromagnetic radiation. EMI Reduction Solutions page. End Point Behavior of the device at the limit of temperature or voltage. Energy harvesting allows electronics to operate where there's no conventional power source, eliminating the need to run wires or make frequent visits to replace batteries.

An energy harvesting system generally includes circuitry to charge an energy storage cell, and manage the power, providing regulation and protection. Energy source examples include light captured by photovoltaic cells , vibration or pressure captured by a piezoelectric element , temperature differentials captured by a thermo-electric generator radio energy captured by an antenna ; and even biochemically produced energy such as cells that extract energy from blood sugar.

An indication of the quality of an analog-to-digital converter ADC. The measurement is related to the test frequency and the signal-to-noise ratio. Release of stored static electricity. The potentially damaging discharge of many thousands of volts that occurs when an electronic device is touched by a charged body.

See the following application notes that describe how ESD is generated, how it damages electronic systems, human body and machine models for testing, IEC compliance levels, and design approaches. A DS1 framing format in which 24 DS0 times lots, plus a coded framing bit are organized into a frame which is repeated 24 times to form a superframe. A capacitor can be modeled as an ideal capacitor in series with a resistor and an inductor. The resistor's value is the ESR. Ethernet A family of network protocols based on asynchronous frames.

The Ethernet framing structure provides a flexible payload container with basic addressing and error detection mechanisms. Evaluation, as in "EV Kit. A printed circuit board with an integrated circuit and support components to produce a working circuit for evaluation and development. Most Evaluation Kits are fully assembled and tested. Part number suffix used for Maxim Evaluation Kits. Dallas Semiconductor, now owned by Maxim, used the term "development kit.

A measure of the difference between the ideal waveform and the measured waveform. Evaluation kits that also include an interface board for connecting to a personal computer and Windows-based EVKit software. Suffix used for Maxim Evaluation System part numbers. Exposed Pad Offered in some packages to improve thermal dissipation or lower the impedance of the ground connection.

Normally not electrically isolated, it typically needs to be connected to a ground or power plane, depending on the device. Fail-Safe A technique used in RS interface transceivers which forces the output to a predefined state in the event of a line short or open circuit. Fan Controller - Linear An integrated circuit that varies the speed and airflow of a cooling fan using a variable voltage in response to temperature or system commands.

Fan Controller - PWM An integrated circuit that varies the speed and airflow of a cooling fan using a pulse-width-modulated PWM voltage in response to temperature or system commands. Fault Blanking A function that ignores a fault for a predetermined period. This is done to eliminate nuisance fault indication. Fault Tolerant Will tolerate excessive voltage during a fault condition. A standard for transmitting data on optical fiber cables at a rate of around ,, bits-per-second 10 times as fast as 10 Base-T Ethernet; about twice as fast as T FDL Facility data link: Used to convey both bit-oriented and message-oriented signals.

FDM A method for carrying multiple channels of information on one channel by dividing the available bandwidth among the channels.

A technique for detecting and correcting errors from imperfect transmission by adding a small number of extra bits. FEC allows optical transmission over longer distances by correcting errors that can happen as the signal-to-noise ratio decreases with distance. Femto Base Station A femto base station also called an Access Point Base Station, femtocell, femtobasestation or femto basestation is an in-home base station.

Like a standard base station, it connects cell phone voice and data to the cell phone network, but it serves a smaller area the home.

A femto base station benefits the service provider because it offloads cell tower traffic. Subscribers benefit from superior signal strength, due to the proximity of the unit -- especially where a cellular signal is weak or not available. Femto base stations augment the normal network and replicates the usual telecommunications infrastructure. Connection to the cell phone network is provided by VoIP over the Internet.

More on femto base stations and information on Maxim's femto base station chipsets. A transistor in which the voltage on one terminal the gate creates a field that allows or disallows conduction between the other two terminals the source and drain.

There are three varieties: FFT A Fourier transform FT converts a signal from the time domain signal strength as a function of time to the frequency domain signal strength as a function of frequency. It shows the signal's spectral content, divided into discrete bins frequency bands. The Fast Fourier Transform is a common algorithm for Fourier transforms.

A transmission technology in which the data signal is modulated by a narrowband carrier signal which changes frequency "hops" over a wide band of frequencies. The hopping seems random but is prescribed by an algorithm known to the receiving system. Fibre Channel A highly-reliable, gigabit interconnect technology that allows concurrent communications among workstations, mainframes, servers, data storage systems, and other peripherals using SCSI and IP protocols.

It provides interconnect systems for multiple topologies that can scale to a total system bandwidth on the order of a terabit per second. The standardized spelling is "fibre channel" but often misspelled as "fiber channel. A type of memory that stores data serially, where the first bit read is the first bit that was stored. A high-speed interface between computers and peripherals such as external disk drives, cameras, and camcorders.

Also referred to by Sony trademarked name, "I-Link. FlexSound FlexSound describes a set of digital audio signal processing blocks used in Maxim's products to provide or enhance audio functions such as compression, limiting, or equalization. Floating A signal line is said to be "floating" if it is not connected to any voltage supply, ground, or ground-referenced signal source. An open-drain, high-impedance hi-z output when in the off hi-z mode In microcomputer systems, a data or address bus may, at times, be undriven floating.

This is permissible because control signals indicate when data is valid, so users of the bus know when the signal can be ignored. One form of non-volatile memory device is achieved via floating gates. The gate charge is changed using Fowler-Nordheim tunneling or hot-carrier injection. A modulation method in which the carrier frequency changes with the input signal amplitude. FOC Fields oriented control Foldback Current Limit A circuit which reduces the current limit once the device enters current-limited operation.

Force-Sense Measurement technique in which a voltage or current is forced at a remote point in a circuit; then the resulting current or voltage is measured sensed. Forward Converter A power-supply switching circuit that transfers energy to the transformer secondary when the switching transistor is on. A family of general-purpose logic devices that can be configured by the end user to perform many, different, complex logic functions.

It is often used for prototyping logic hardware. Frame Relay A high-speed, packet-switched data communications service similar to X. Once synchronized and data fields are properly aligned, overhead bits for alarms, performance monitoring, embedded signaling, etc. Frequency Bin The frequency range and resolution on the frequency axis of a spectrum graph depends on the sampling rate and the size of the data record the number of acquisition points. They are commonly referred to as frequency bins or FFT bins.

Bins can also be computed with reference to a data converter's sampling period: We apply a sampling frequency of 82MHz and take records. The frequency bin is 10kHz. Frequency Diversity In radio systems, Frequency Diversity spreads a signal across multiple channels by transmitting multiple versions of the signal on different frequencies. Frequency Synthesizer A frequency synthesizer is an electronic circuit that uses an oscillator to generate a preprogrammed set of stable frequencies with minimal phase noise.

A method of transmitting digital data by shifting the frequency of a carrier signal to represent binary 1s and 0s. A method for broadband data voice, Internet, multimedia, etc. Contrast with FTTN fiber-to-the-node which uses fiber up to a node outside the home and uses copper to bring the data into the home.

Fiber-to-the-node FTTN uses fiber to bring data to a node and uses copper to bring the data into the home. Fiber-to-the-home FTTH brings fiber all the way into the home. Full Duplex A channel providing simultaneous transmission in both directions. G Gram s GaAs Gallium arsenide: A semiconductor material used for optoelectronic products such as LEDs, and for high-speed electronic devices.

The conducting channel is built using a metal-semiconductor Schottky junction. A semiconductor material used for optoelectronics, including LEDs and photodiodes.

Gain The amount of amplification accomplished by an amplifier circuit. For instance, a gain of 2 would mean the output is scaled to twice the amplitude of the input. Gain Error The gain error of a data converter indicates how well the slope of an actual transfer function matches the slope of the ideal transfer function. Gain error is usually expressed in LSB or as a percent of full-scale range.

Gain error can be calibrated out with hardware or in software. Gain error is the full-scale error minus the offset error. Signals can pass between galvanically isolated circuits, but stray currents, such as differences in ground potential or currents induced by AC power, are blocked. Gamma Correction The application of a function that transforms brightness or luminance values. Gamma functions are usually nonlinear but monotonic and designed to affect the highlights whitest values , midtones grayscale , and shadows dark areas separately.

Most commonly applied to make a light-emitting device, such as a display, match the human eye's brightness curve. A gamma correction function can be used to alter the luminance light intensity of a display such that its brightness the human-perceived values looks correct.

The controlling terminal of a FET. A basic logic element e. A removable transceiver module permitting Fibre-Channel and Gigabit-Ethernet physical-layer transport. GBW Gain bandwidth Generator An electromechanical device that converts mechanical power into electrical power. GFSK Gaussian frequency-shift keying: A type of FSK modulation which uses a Gaussian filter to shape the pulses before they are modulated.

This reduces the spectral bandwidth and out-of-band spectrum, to meet adjacent-channel power rejection requirements. GHz Gigahertz Gigabit 1 billion bits-per-second. Glitch General term used to describe an undesirable, momentary pulse or unexpected input or output.

Glitch Immunity A term used in microprocessor supervisory circuit datasheets to describe the maximum magnitude and duration of a negative-going V CC supply-voltage pulse without causing the reset output to assert. The tone frequencies are separated by exactly half the bit rate. It has high spectral efficiency. This is a Maxim-specific category name for a range of products that serialize, deserialize, and buffer high-speed digital data streams for communications over short distances.

A standard bus for controlling electronic instruments with a computer. A flexible parallel interface that allows a variety of custom connections. A radio technology for GSM networks that adds packet-switching protocols and shorter set-up time for ISP connections; it offers the possibility to charge by amount of data sent rather than connect time.

A satellite- based navigation system in which two or more signals, received from satellites, are used to determine the receiver's position on the globe. A land, mobile, pan-European, digital, cellular radio-communications system. The unit of inductance. H-Bridge A circuit diagram which resembles the letter "H. It is very common in DC motor-drive applications where switches are used in the "vertical" branches of the "H" to control the direction of current flow, and thus the rotational direction of the motor.

Half-Duplex Data transmission over a circuit capable of transmitting in either direction, but not simultaneously. Half-Flash An ADC architecture which uses a bank of comparators first to digitize the upper half bits, then uses a digital-to-analog converter DAC to subtract that voltage from the input, and then digitizes what remains of the input signal to get the lower half bits. Also known as "handoff.

Clipping is a common cause but other nonlinearities can also introduce harmonics. Bit 0 is modulated to a Hz sinusoidal signal, and bit 1 is modulated to a Hz sinusoidal signal with a baud rate of bps. These two frequencies can easily be superimposed on the analog current-loop signal, which is in the range of DC to 10Hz, without affecting either signal. This unique nature of the HART protocol enables simultaneous analog and digital communication on the same wire.

HAST Highly accelerated stress test; highly accelerated steam and temperature HB LED High-Brightness LEDs are any of a new generation of LEDs bright enough for illumination applications such as automotive interior, exterior, and display; room and architectural illumination; task and general lighting; projection display; display backlights; and signage.

The oldest of the DSL technologies, it continues to be used by telephone companies deploying T1 lines at 1. A high-definition television set can display several resolutions, up to two million pixels versus a common television set's , HDTV offers other advantages such as greatly improved color encoding and the loss-free reproduction inherent in digital technologies.

Heat Sink Mechanical device that is thermally-connected to a heat-producing electronic component, designed to conduct heat away from the device. Most heat sinks are aluminum and employ fins to increase surface area and encourage the transfer of heat to the ambient environment.

The signal is left open, so that another output pin e. High-Side An element connected between the supply and the load. High-side current sensing applications measure current by looking at the voltage drop across a resistor placed between the supply and the load. Home RF Trademarked name for Home Radio Frequency, a networking technology which uses antennae and transmitters to provide wireless home networking via transmitted radio signals.

HomePlug HomePlug Powerline is an industry-standard method for transmitting data via the power lines. It can transmit audio, video, control signals, etc. See our Powerline product page. PLC is an acronym for Powerline Communications. Hot-Swap A power supply line controller which allows circuit boards or other devices to be removed and replaced while the system remains powered up. Hotswap devices typically protect against overvoltage, undervoltage, and inrush current that can cause faults, errors, and hardware damage.

A short-distance communications standard for data rates from 2Mbps to 52Mbps. Coding language used to create web pages. Industry term for the systems and technology responsible for the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning in buildings. HVAC systems regulate comfort temperature and humidity , energy efficiency, and air quality. A measure of frequency. An older term is cycles per second, or cps. The bus consists of three lines: Two quadrature carriers, 90 degrees out of phase, are modulated, then combined.

I Q Q should be subscripted but sometimes printed as "IQ" without subscripting: The current consumed when a circuit is in a quiet state, driving no load and if appropriate, with its inputs not cycling. Intelligence quotient, a measure in which electrical engineers invariably excel.

In a power amplifier, a measure of how far you must reduce the input power in order to receive the desired output linearity and power. Stated differently, the ratio between the input power that delivers maximum power to the input power that delivers the desired linearity.

At light loads the circuit skips pulses as necessary acting like a PFM circuit. At higher loads it acts like PWM. The net result is the maximum efficiency over the widest possible load range. An "organization that prepares and publishes international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies. Commonly used to refer to one of the 13 power connectors described by specification IEC Most commonly refers to the C13 and C14 connectors used by most computers and many AC-powered electronic devices to connect the AC power.

Radio communications systems modulate a carrier frequency with a baseband signal in order to achieve radio transmission. In many cases, the carrier is not modulated directly. Instead, a lower IF signal is modulated and processed. At a later circuit stage, the IF signal is converted up to the transmission frequency band. The point at which the power in the third-order product and the fundamental tone intersect, when the amplifier is assumed to be linear.

IIP3 is a very useful parameter to predict low-level intermodulation effects. In addition to the IF, a second signal, called the "image frequency" is often generated and filtered out.

Image Rejection The measure of a receiver's ability to reject signals at its image frequency. It is normally expressed as the ratio, in dB, of the receiver's sensitivity at the desired frequency versus the sensitivity at the image frequency.

When two signals mix in non-linear circuits or devices, new frequency components are created that are not in the original signal. The resulting signal error is called intermodulation distortion, or IMD. Impedance Impedance, represented by the symbol Z, is a measure of the opposition to electrical flow. It is measured in ohms. In AC systems, the "reactance" enters the equation due to the frequency-dependent contributions of capacitance and inductance.

A technology in which the processor voltage VCC is dynamically adjusted, based on the processor activity, to reduce processor power. It allows higher processor clock speed at a given power consumption; or lower consumption at a given clock frequency.

Inductive Kickback The very rapid change in voltage across an inductor when current flow is interrupted. Snubber diodes are often used to channel this energy in relays, and other inductive loads. Kickback can be a problem causing EMI and component failure ; or it can be used in power supply circuits to develop higher or opposite-polarity voltages from a single supply.

InfiniBand InfiniBand architecture is an industry standard, channel-based, switched-fabric, interconnect architecture for servers. InfiniBand architecture changes the way servers are built, deployed, and managed. InGaAs Indium gallium arsenide Ingress Protection An Ingress Protection IP rating indicates how well an enclosure is protected from penetration by contaminants such as dust or fluids such as water. IP ratings are defined in the IEC standard For signal processing devices with differential inputs, such as an op amp, CMVR is the range of common mode signal for which the amplifier's operation remains linear.

Some op amps, for instance, will only allow the common mode voltage of a signal to come within a diode drop or so of the power supply rails. Many of Maxim's op amps will allow the common mode input voltage to go all the way to one or both supply rails. Inrush Current A momentary input current surge, measured during the initial turn-on of the power supply. This current reduces to a lower steady-state current once the input capacitors charge.

Hotswap controllers or other forms of protection are often used to limit inrush current, because uncontrolled inrush can damage components, lower the available supply voltage to other circuits, and cause system errors. An on-chip voltage reference.

Integral Nonlinearity A measure of a data converter's ability to adhere to an ideal slope in its transfer function.

It can be specified using end-point or best-straight-line fit. Each of these approaches can yield very different numbers for the same data converter. Intellectual Property Intellectual Property: Creations of the intellect such as trade knowledge, technical information, and literary or artistic work, including patents, copyrights, and trademarks.

Intermodulation A process whereby signals mix together in a circuit and nonlinearities in the circuit create undesired output frequencies that are not present at the input. Internet Protocol Standard method for data transfer used on the Internet. Inverting Switching Regulator A switch-mode voltage regulator in which output voltage is negative with respect to its input voltage.

Remote configuration, diagnostics, event triggering and process data readout are made possible from a PLC via a three layer protocol stack. IO-Link can be used for simple binary sensors and smart sensors. Light that has a frequency below the visible light spectrum, used for remote controls, line-of-sight wireless data, and night vision applications, among others. A group of device manufacturers that developed a standard for transmitting data via infrared light waves.

A form of interference that occurs when echoes of a radio-signal interfere with the original signal. Radio frequency bands made available for use by communication equipment without license, within certain maximum emitted power limits. Equipment which uses the ISM band must tolerate interference from other such equipment. Common uses include WiFi Company that offers connection to the Internet. An international organization under the UN that is concerned with telecommunications.

An array of hard disks without a controller. A p-channel JFET would consist of a bar of p-type silicon with the "drain" at one end and the "source" at the other. Between these two terminals is some n-type material connected to a "gate".

A positive voltage applied to the gate creates a "depletion field" which restricts current flow between the source and drain. JITT Just-in-time tester Jitter The slight movement of a transmission signal in time or phase that can introduce errors and loss of synchronization.

More jitter will be encountered with longer cables, cables with higher attenuation, and signals at higher data rates. Also, called phase jitter, timing distortion, or intersymbol interference.

A measurement of energy or work. In mechanical systems, it's the a force of one newton, moving an object a distance of one meter. In electronics, it's the same amount of energy, in electrical units. One joule is one watt of power, applied for one second a watt-second ; or a coulomb of electrical charge raised to a potential of one volt.

JVM Java virtual machine. Metric unit representing Note that the k is always lowercase. In digital systems, "K" or "k" is often used to mean 2 10 , that is, This is not well-standardized but it's usually apparent from context. On the Maxim site, we use upper-case K to mean and lower-case k to mean This standard is applied to new documents but older documents may use "k". Zero K is defined as absolute zero. Note that temperatures on the kelvin scale are called kelvins, not "degrees kelvin.

The word "kelvin" in this context is not capitalized. Defacto standard for the three cables used on a typical cpr: One for the keyboard; one for the monitor video ; one for the mouse. The GPS carrier frequencies A computer network, usually within one building, that connects computers, file and mail servers, storage, peripherals, and other devices in a way that permits data interchange and sharing of resources.

Ethernet and WiFi Laser Driver An IC that supplies modulated current to a laser diode in response to an input serial-data stream. An IC package, usually ceramic, that has no leads pins. It instead uses metal pads at its outer edge to make contact with the printed circuit board.

A square surface mount chip package in plastic with leads pins on all four sides. A linear voltage regulator that will operate even when the input voltage barely exceeds the desired output voltage.

Leakage Inductance Leakage inductance in a transformer is an inductive component that results from the imperfect magnetic linking of one winding to another.

Imperfect coupling reduces the signal induced in the secondary windings. The electrical equivalent is some self-inductance in series with the primary windings that are properly coupled.

This series inductance is the "leakage inductance. A semiconductor device that emits light usually visible or infrared when forward-biased. Controlling Brightness Power Efficiently" has a good explanation of how LEDs work, especially with regard to current vs. A shift register in which some of its outputs are connected to the input through some logic gates typically, an exclusive-or XOR.

A wide variety of bit patterns can be generated inexpensively, including pseudo-random sequences. Can be used as a noise generator. Some application notes that include an LFSR: Figure 2 shows how a random noise generator randomly shifts the frequency to reduce EMI. Line Regulation The ability of a power-supply voltage regulator to maintain its output voltage despite variations in its input voltage.

Having the property that the output is proportional to the input. Analog; as in a "linear" circuit as opposed to digital. Linear Regulator A voltage regulator that is placed between a supply and the load and provides a constant voltage by varying its effective resistance.

We use CR chemistry manganese dioxide primary lithium coin cells in microcontroller and touch products. Some new products use "manganese lithium" ML chemistry, which is chemically close to the CR, but is a secondary rechargeable lithium coin cell. Lithium-ion batteries Lithium and lithium-ion: A number of battery chemistries are based on the element lithium, a highly-reactive metallic element.

Lithium-based batteries are common in two applications: Power for portable equipment such as cell phones, laptops, and MP3 players; and low-power, long-life applications such as powering memory elements and clocks.

They are usually rechargeable. Lithium-ion and nickel-metal-hydride NiMH have displaced nickel-cadmium NiCd or nicad as the dominant rechargeable chemistry for portable applications.

Maxim makes a wide range of battery management products for all these families, including chargers, fuel gauges, and smart battery components. The black and white portion of a video signal, also referred to as the "Y" component. Applications include automatic meter reading, fleet management, vending, monitoring and control, security and alarms, and telemedicine. Ampere is the basic unit for measuring electrical current. A hardware address that uniquely identifies each node of a network, as in IEEE Ethernet networks.

The MAC layer interfaces directly with the network medium. Manchester Data Encoding Manchester encoding is a form of binary phase-shift keying BPSK that has gained wide acceptance as a modulation scheme for low-cost radio-frequency RF transmission of digital data. Its key characteristic is that it encodes data in a way that insures there will never be long strings of continuous zeros or ones.

The guaranteed transitions means that the clock can be derived from the transmitted data, allowing the link to function with variable signal strengths from transmitters with imprecise, low-cost, data-rate clocks. MAP Manifold absolute pressure Margining Margining is a test procedure that determines the "safety margin. A large number of parts can be characterized to determine a safe range for the specification, to guarantee performance and yield.

Hold Step MV When switching between sample mode and hold mode, charge injection from stray capacitance causes the maximum voltage of the hold capacitor to change. In a switching device, a configuration in which the new connection path is established before the previous contacts are opened. This prevents the switched path from ever seeing an open circuit. An integrated circuit package that contains two or more interconnected chips.

MCM is an abbreviation for thousands of circular mils, an old measurement of wire gauge. A wire mils in diameter is 40 MCM. MCM is generally used for very large-diameter wire. Most wire uses AWG. MCM is also used for "million cubic meters. Megacycles per second obsolete: Megachips per Second Mcps: In a Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum signal, a "chip" is an encoding element. Mcps is a measure of the speed at which chips can be generated by a circuit. MegaBaud RS logic-level compatible data rates that are 1Mbps or higher.

Systems that combine mechanical and electrical components and are fabricated using semiconductor fabrication techniques. Common examples are pressure and acceleration sensors which combine the sensor and amplification or conditioning circuitry. Other applications include switches, valves, and waveguides. Measurement of frequency -- million cycles per second. A low-cost network in which PCs or microcontrollers communicate digitally over twisted-pair cable using 1-Wire components. Microprocessor Supervisor A device that monitors a host microprocessor or microcontroller's supply voltage and, in some cases, its activity.

It monitors for a fault condition and takes appropriate action, usually issuing a reset to the microprocessor. It takes advantage of multipath effects, where a transmitted signal arrives at the receiver through a number of different paths. Each path can have a different time delay, and the result is that multiple instances of a single transmitted symbol arrive at the receiver at different times.

Usually multipath is a source of interference, but MIMO systems use the fact that data will arrive at the receiver at different times through different paths to improve the quality of the data link.

For example, rather than relying on a single antenna path to receive an entire message, the message can be pieced together based on fragments received at the various antennas. This can act to either increase the data rate at a given range, or increase system range for a given data rate. MIMO is used in the implementation of the The minimum sensitivity attainable with a programmable loss-of-signal feature.

In plain language, the value rises and never falls; or it falls and never rises. In a MOSFET, the conductive channel between the drain and source contacts is controlled by a metal gate separated from the channel by a very thin insulating layer of oxide.

The gate voltage establishes a field that allows or blocks current flow. In a binary number, the MSB is the most weighted bit in the number. Msps Megasamples per second: A measure of speed in digitizing systems, samples per second dictates the maximum frequencies that can be accurately captured.

MTIMD Multitone intermodulation distortion MTPR Multitone power ratio Multipath In radio transmission, multipath refers to the simultaneous reception of two copies of the signal, that arrive via separate paths with different delays. A common example is when a signal bounces off a building or other object and is received along with the direct unbounced signal. In television reception, this causes "ghosting" -- one sees a faded echo on the screen horizontally displaced from the main image.

Another common example is in radio especially AM radio , where the signal bounces off the ionosphere and one receives that delayed signal along with the directly transmitted signal. Usually, multipath is an undesired effect but in MIMO systems, separate antennas deliberately send replicas and sophisticated receivers piece together the fragments to improve performance. Combining two signals which can be analog or a digital stream into one in such a way that they can later be separated. Examples are OFDM; standard FM stereo broadcast in which left and right are multiplexed onto one baseband signal ; standard television in which video and several audio signals shared the channel; and time-division multiplexing which gives each signal a separate time-slice.

An array of analog switches, usually on a single CMOS chip, that allows one input signal to be routed to any of several output lines, depending on the value of a set of digital control lines. A multiplexer can also be used in the opposite direction, allowing the array to connect one of several input lines to the output, depending on the control lines. Several of these can be implemented on one chip to make a multi-channel version. Maxim makes hundreds of these parts. Murphy's Law Anything that can go wrong, will.

The MxTNI platform consists of a microcontroller that includes the facilities necessary to connect to the Internet. A billionth of a volt. A positive voltage on the gate turns the device on. Noxious Fumes A combination of inert and corrosive gases usually associated with exhaust fumes or industrial by-products gases which can cause corrosive effects on temperature and pressure sensors when exposed.

A binary encoding scheme in which ones and zeroes are represented by opposite and alternating high and low voltages, and where there is no return to a zero reference voltage between encoded bits. That is, the stream has only two values: The NTSC standard's distinguishing feature was that it added color to the original black and white television standard in such a way that black and white TVs continued to work.

Another distinguishing characteristic was that NTSC's dependency on accurate phase meant that it was difficult to maintain the color as the signal was transmitted and processed. The genius of the system is that black and white TVs ignore the color components, which are beyond the black and white signal's bandwidth.

The NTSC color subcarrier reference is 3. The horizontal sync rate H was adjusted slightly from the black and white standard's The maximum bandwidth of the signal half the sampling rate is commonly called the Nyquist frequency or Shannon sampling frequency.

In real life, sampling rate must be higher than that because filters are not perfect. As an example, the bandwidth of a standard audio CD is a bit shy of the theoretical maximum of A method for multiplexing signals which divides the available bandwidth into a series of frequencies known as tones. Flarion uses the 5GHz channel and divides each channel into discrete tones each at slightly different frequency. Orthogonal tones do not interfere with each other when the peak of one tone corresponds with the null.

All frequencies fade but the rapid switching, frequency-hopping technique is intended to allow more robust data service. An LED made with organic materials. The diodes in displays made with OLEDs emit light when a voltage is applied to them.

The pixel diodes are selectively turned on or off to form images on the screen. This kind of display can be brighter and more efficient than current LCD displays. Op amp Operational amplifier: The ideal op amp is an amplifier with infinite input impedance, infinite open-loop gain, zero output impedance, infinite bandwidth, and zero noise. It has positive and negative inputs which allow circuits that use feedback to achieve a wide range of functions.

Using op amps, it's easy to make amplifiers, comparators, log amps, filters, oscillators, data converters, level translators, references, and more. Mathematical functions like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and integration can be easily accomplished.

Practical, real-world op amps have finite characteristics but in most applications, are close enough to the ideal to make a huge range of inexpensive, high-performance analog applications possible. They are the building block for analog design. One key to op amp design is nodal analysis.

Nodal Analysis of Op Amp Circuits for a good tutorial on this topic. Also see other amplifier tutorials at: Maxim has hundreds of op amps and other amplifiers. Open-drain An open-drain or open-collector output pin is driven by a single transistor, which pulls the pin to only one voltage generally, to ground. When the output device is off, the pin is left floating open, or hi-z. A common example is an n-channel transistor which pulls the signal to ground when the transistor is on or leaves it open when the transistor is off.

Open-drain refers to such a circuit implemented in FET technologies because the transistor's drain terminal is connected to the output; open-collector means a bipolar transistor's collector is performing the function.

When the transistor is off, the signal can be driven by another device or it can be pulled up or down by a resistor. The resistor prevents an undefined, floating state. See the related term, hi-z. OR Combining two signals so that the output is on if either signal is present.

This can be accomplished by an OR logic gate two inputs, one output which is high if either input is. It can also be done with a "wired-OR" connection in which two signals are simply wired together and either one of them can raise the level.

This works when the signals are driven by a source that only pulls up or only pulls down, with a resistive load e. Output to Input Ratio The ratio between the sensed current and the output current of the amplifier.

Overvoltage Protection Overvoltage Protector OVP refers to a circuit that protects downstream circuitry from damage due to excessive voltage. An OVP monitors the DC voltage coming from an external power source, such as an off-line power supply or a battery, and protects the rest of the connected circuitry using one of two methods: The crowbar short-circuits or clamps the supply line to limit the voltage, possibly triggering other forms of protection such as a fuse.

An amplifier used to drive significant power levels. An audio amplifier that drives a loudspeaker and the final stage of a transmitter are common examples. A television standard used in most of Europe. Similar to NTSC, but uses subcarrier phase alternation to reduce the sensitivity to phase errors that would be displayed as color errors. Commonly used with line, 50Hz scanning systems, with a subcarrier frequency of 4. Video Basics Parallel Interface A parallel interface as distinguished from a serial interface is one in which data is sent on several wires or several wireless channels at once.

GPIB, byte-wide parallel interfaces to data converters, memory and data buses on computer boards and backplanes. In contrast, a serial interface uses one wire or wire-pair or wireless channel or one in each direction. Parasite Power The device derives its supply power directly from the serial interface 1-Wire.

PBC Port bypass circuit pC 1. Picocoulomb s , a unit of electrical charge. A PC Card is a removable device, approximately the size of a credit card, designed to plug into a matching slot.

A standard interface used primarily on computer backplanes to connect interface cards and peripheral devices to the processor bus. PCI is often used for video display cards, network interfaces e. It is used to link motherboard-mounted peripherals and as an expansion card interface for add-in boards.

The PCIe electrical interface is also used in a variety of other standards, most notably the ExpressCard laptop expansion card interface. A standard for miniaturized laptop expansion cards for modems, storage, and other devices.

The standard was officially renamed "PC card. An American generic term for a mass-market mobile phone service, emphasizing personal communication, independent of the technology used to provide it.

PDA Personal digital assistant. The digital wireless standard used in Japan. Also may be called Reverse Breakdown Voltage. A Farad is the unit of capacitance. A pF is 10 of a Farad. A pulse modulation technique in which the frequency is varied with the input signal amplitude. The duty cycle of the modulated signal does not change. Because it is always a square wave with changing frequency, PFM is also referred to as square-wave FM.

A methodology for assessing the weaknesses of production processes and the potential effects of process failures on the product being produced. An amplifier whose gain can be varied by a separate input usually a digital value. Pin electronics can deliver signals, power, or precise voltages and currents, and can measure the pin's response, drive, and electrical characteristics. A combination of standards, protocols, and software that creates, edits, and revokes digital public key certificates.

Maxim Solutions for PLCs. Maxim pin LCC diagram PDF Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy The time-division multiplexed network used by telecommunications companies to transport phone calls and data over copper cabling.

The entire network shares a common frequency throughout it's tree-like structure, although phase and time delay variations exists at various points along the edge of the network. PLL A phase-locked loop PLL, or phase lock loop is a control system that generates a signal that has a fixed relation to the phase of a "reference" signal. A phase-locked loop circuit responds to both the frequency and the phase of the input signals, automatically raising or lowering the frequency of a controlled oscillator until it is matched to the reference in both frequency and phase.

Phase-locked loops are widely used in radio, telecommunications, computers and other electronic applications. They may generate stable frequencies, recover a signal from a noisy communication channel, or distribute clock timing pulses in digital logic designs such as microprocessors.

Circuits used to regulate and control power. Pmods communicate with system boards using 6- or pin connectors.

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A common use of the term is rating energy storage device capacity, especially rechargeable batteries. For example, a volt, 7Ah rechargeable battery used in an alarm system will supply an amp at the .

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Electrical engineering is one of the newer branches of engineering, and dates back to the late 19th century. It is the branch of engineering that deals with the technology of electricity. Electrical engineers work on a wide range of components, devices and systems, from tiny microchips to . electrical engineering n. The branch of engineering that deals with the technology of electricity, especially the design and application of circuitry and equipment for power generation and distribution, machine control, and communications. electrical engineer n. electrical engineering n (Electrical Engineering) the branch of engineering concerned with.

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Electrical engineering definition is - a type of engineering that deals with the uses of electricity. a type of engineering that deals with the uses of electricity See the full definition. Glossary of Electrical Engineering Terms - Professor J R Lucas You are Visitor No to this site at the Department of Electrical Engineering,University of Moratuwa, since its inauguration on 11 December .