I began to wonder why I should dedicate my life to a career where the boundaries of progress were set by racial discrimination. There were indications, however, that the tide was turning in favor of integration. Nevertheless, the tryout brought Robinson to the attention of Clyde Sukeforth, the chief scout of the Brooklyn Dodgers.
Robinson had no illusions about the purpose of his meeting with the Dodgers. But he was convinced that he was morally right and he shrewdly sensed that making the game a truly national one would have healthy financial results. The Monarchs were especially angered by the signing and went so far as to threaten a lawsuit against the Dodgers for tampering with a player who was already under contract. The Dodger president refused, speaking only of the excitement and competitive advantage that black players would bring to Brooklyn baseball, while downplaying the moral significance he attached to integration.
Rickey named Mississippian Clay Hopper, who had worked for him since , to manage the Royals. There were reports, probably true, that Hopper begged Rickey to reconsider giving him this assignment. Finding himself unable to eat or sleep, he went to a doctor, who concluded he was suffering from stress. Despite the tension and distractions, Robinson managed to hit for an impressive. After the final game in that championship series, grateful Royals fans hoisted Robinson onto their shoulders and carried him to the locker room.
To promote and protect his young black star, Rickey made some additional moves. First, in order to avoid Jim Crow restrictions, he held spring training in Havana, Cuba, instead of Florida. Next, he moved Robinson, an experienced shortstop and second baseman, to first base, where he would be spared physical contact with opposing players who might try to injure him deliberately.
I want you to hit that ball. I want you to get on base and run wild. Steal their pants off. Be the most conspicuous player on the field. The newspapermen from New York will send good stories back about you and help mold favorable public opinion. Robinson more than obliged, batting.
But instead of helping him, the performance served only to alienate him from his future teammates, many of whom were Southerners.
Alabamian Dixie Walker drafted a petition stating that the players who signed would prefer to be traded than to play with a black teammate. While the team was playing exhibition games in Panama, Walker proceeded to gather signatures from Dodger teammates.
When Dodger manager Leo Durocher learned of the petition, he was furious. The rebellion squelched, Rickey announced on April 10, , that Jackie Robinson had officially been signed to play first base for the Brooklyn Dodgers.
The noble experiment was in full swing. Of all the major league cities, Brooklyn, with its ethnically diverse and racially mixed neighborhoods, was just the place to break the color barrier. This warm affinity was fostered, in part, by their cramped but colorful ballpark, Ebbets Field, located in the Flatbush section of Brooklyn.
The double-decked grandstands stood only along the foul lines, allowing the fans a special intimacy wit the players. When Robinson made his first appearance as a Dodger on April 15, , more than 26, fans packed Ebbets Field; reportedly some 14, of those were African American. The afternoon was cold and rainy, and Robinson went hitless. Nonetheless, the sight of a black man on a major league diamond during a regular season game moved the crowd so deeply that they cheered the Dodgers on to a victory over the Boston Braves.
Every move the year-old rookie made seemed to be greeted with the chant: When the Philadelphia Phillies arrived in Brooklyn a week later, however, all hopes that integration would come peaceably were shattered. In one of the lowest moments ever in baseball history, the Phillies, led by their Southern manager, Ben Chapman, launched a tirade of racial epithets during the pregame batting practice. And the jeering did not let up throughout the entire three-game series.
Two weeks later, when the Dodgers traveled to the so-called City of Brotherly Love, Chapman and his Phillies picked up where they left off, warning the Dodger players that they would contract diseases if they touched Robinson and indulging in even more personal racial slurs.
In fact, Chapman probably would have lost his job over the incident, if Robinson had not agreed to pose with him for a conciliatory newspaper photograph. Under duress, the Phillies manager agreed to stand next to the Dodger rookie. Robinson reached out and grasped it. The flicker of a smile crept across his face as the photographer snapped away, getting several shots.
Years later Robinson admitted that the incessant abuse during those games with the Phillies almost led him to the breaking point. As he described it: What a glorious, cleansing thing it would be to let go.
I could throw down my bat, stride over to the Phillies dugout, grab one of those white sons of bitches and smash his teeth in with my despised black fist. The experience with the Phillies revealed the shocking severity of the racism that existed in baseball.
As the season unfolded, Dodger support for Robinson strengthened in response to the admirable way he handled all the adversity.
Opposing pitchers threw at his head and ribs, while infielders would spit in his face if he was involved in a close play on the base paths. And the hate mail was unending. But through it all, Robinson persevered. He even managed to keep a sense of humor. Even the white baseball establishment began to embrace the Dodger infielder. In May of , when Ford Frick learned of the St. The National League will go down the line with Robinson whatever the consequence.
In addition to a new car and other gifts, Robinson received tributes for his contribution to racial equality. And when all was said and done, no amount of hate mail or verbal and psychological abuse could tarnish the indisputable fact that Jackie Robinson was an exceptional baseball player. He belonged in the major leagues. Thousands of blacks came to watch him play, setting new attendance records in such cities as Chicago and Pittsburgh.
Ed Charles, a black youngster from the Deep South who went on to play in the major leagues himself, remembered the thrill of seeing his childhood hero for the first time. When the game was over we kids followed Jackie to the train station. When the train pulled out, we ran down the tracks listening for the sounds as far as we could. We wanted to be part of him as long as we could.
Indeed, Robinson had jolted the national consciousness in a profound way. Suddenly, there was a black baseball star who could hit, bunt, steal, and field with the best of them.
His style of play was nothing new in the Negro Leagues, but in the white majors, it was innovative and exciting. Robinson made things happen on the base paths. If he got on first, he stole second. If he could not steal third, he would distract the pitcher by dancing off second in order to advance. And then he would steal home. By , every team in major league baseball was integrated, one of every five players being of African-American descent. His career totals, which included 1, hits, more than stolen bases, and a lifetime batting average of.
He continued to fight actively for civil rights long after his baseball career had ended, supporting Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Despite his tremendous accomplishments on and off the baseball field, Jackie Robinson, with characteristic humility, never gave himself much credit. But uneasy because I knew that I was still a black man in a white world. Irene Sgambelluri was eleven years old, and living in Guam, when Japanese forces assaulted the area hours after bombing Pearl Harbor on Dec.
Sgambelluri spoke with HistoryNet about the attack and the aftermath. But Irish republicans had long been pushing for independence, and tensions ran high in the Emerald Isle. Thus, when the British introduced conscription in Get inside articles from the world's premier publisher of history magazines. Featured Article Jackie Robinson: Daily Quiz for April 7, Baseball great Jackie Robinson became a vice president for this coffee company after he retired from baseball.
The season was difficult for Larry Doby. He did not hit well, and it soon became clear that he was not best-suited as an infielder. He played little throughout most of his first season in the majors. He batted only 30 times, striking out 11 times for a poor. The season was different altogether. The quiet Doby was determined to improve upon his disappointing first season. Doby batted an impressive.
In the World Series, Doby paced the Indians with. He served a short stint as manager of the White Sox in becoming only the second African American manager in the major leagues. He has not yet been elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame. He is the only black major leaguer from still living. In July the St. Louis Browns were the worst team in major league baseball.
The move provoked a mixed response in a city many considered part of the South. Several observers considered the inclusion of Brown and Thompson on the Browns roster a desperate attempt to improve attendance without any real commitment to integrating the major leagues. Thompson, a year-old infielder from Los Angeles, California, was ranked as a true major league prospect. Before coming to the Browns, he was hitting. Willard Brown had already spent a legendary career as one of the best players in the Negro Leagues.
He played his first games for the Monarchs in Although he had hit. Brown and Thompson, unlike Robinson and Doby, faced a mostly hostile reception by their fellow players and did not receive strong support from the white management.
Many of the Browns players refused to speak to them. Thompson and Brown were greeted with silence when introduced to the team. The Browns refused to warm up with their new teammates on the field. Henry Thompson made his first appearance in the majors on July Willard Brown started in the outfield two days later on July Neither of the two hit well in their initial outings; after a few weeks both had batting averages less than. Still, Thompson and Brown had their moments of inspired play.
Thompson continued to improve, raising his average to. Though Brown could not live up to his legendary batting skill, he did manage to achieve one measurable place in the history books. It was the first home run ever hit by an African American in the American League. Nonetheless, the club soon realized that Thompson and Brown were not the answer to sagging attendance at home.
Thompson and Brown were dismissed from the Browns just over one month after being signed to the major leagues. Less than three years after he played with the Browns, Henry Thompson joined the New York Giants making him the first black man to play in both the National and American Leagues.
That year he set a major league record for the greatest number 43 of double plays started by a third baseman. Thompson spent 9 years in the majors hitting.
He died at age 44 in Willard Brown let his bat speak for him in the winter following his release from the Browns. He won the Negro American League batting title in with a. In 22 years of professional baseball, Willard Brown hit for a combined average of. He is often considered the best home run hitter not included in the Baseball Hall of Fame.
Dan Bankhead, of Empire, Alabama, was one of five brothers that played professional baseball in the Negro Leagues. He signed his first baseball contract with the Birmingham Black Barons in Unfortunately, Bankhead was hit hard yielding 10 hits in three innnings. He salvaged some of his pride at the plate, though. Bankead smacked a home run in his first major league at bat becoming the only National League pitcher ever to do so at the time. Dan Bankhead appeared in three more games before the Dodgers sent him down to the minor leagues.
He was called back to the major leagues in and pitched in a total of 52 major league games. He continued to play pro baseball in Canada and Mexico through He died in May, in Houston, Texas. Jackie Robinson Materials on Jackie Robinson from our national library. Negro Leagues Baseball Page Learn about the leagues where African American ballplayers competed before tumbling the color barrier.
Major League Baseball The official site of major league baseball. Extensive news and information on all of baseball; check out the Jackie Robinson section. Teachers should see the educational Jackie Robinson timeline. The Negro Baseball Leagues, Hannigan, Amereon House, Wait Till Next Year: Rowan with Jackie Robinson, Random House, Thomas is a year-old local to Baldwin Village.
Daniel Desure is the principal of Commonwealth Projects. His work with forward thinking artists, museums and galleries informed the trajectory of the studio and positioned Commonwealth Projects as a leading creative studio in Los Angeles.
Not just a service based studio, Commonwealth Projects also champions projects it would like to see within the landscape of culture. Sophey plays volleyball, basketball, track, cross country, yoga if that counts and has started to get into a few new sports recently due to the grant. She plans to go straight into college and major in business marketing and advertising.
Something else that Sophey is extremely passionate about is equal-opportunities for all. Janet Evans is widely considered to be the greatest female distance swimmer in history. Despite her small size and unorthodox windmill stroke, she was a natural-born swimmer, completing laps by the age of two. In , when she was 15 years old, Janet burst onto the international swimming scene, breaking world records in the m, m and the m freestyle.
A year later at the Olympics in Seoul, Janet won gold medals in all three of her races: In in Barcelona, Janet defended her gold in the freestyle and added a silver medal in the freestyle. At the Atlanta Olympics, Janet swam in both the meter and meter freestyle but failed to medal. Through that once in a lifetime opportunity, she saw another side of the Olympic experience which changed her forever. She retired from competitive swimming at the end of the Atlanta Games.
During her career, Janet broke a total of seven world records in three events meter, meter, and meter freestyle. Her meter world record stood for 20 years, her world record stood for 21 years, and her world record stood for 19 years, making them some of the longest standing records on the swimming books. In , Janet mounted a comeback in the sport with the goal of competing at the Olympic Trials in in the meter and meter freestyle.
She successfully qualified for the Trials, and, at the age 40, had the recent honor of trying out for the Olympic Team in both events in July of More recently, in September of , Janet was selected to be the primary athlete voice of the Los Angeles Olympic Bid. She will continue her role with the newly formed LA Organizing Committee, as her team works to ensure that the athletes of the world have the best possible athlete experience at the Olympic and Paralympic Games. Out of the pool, Janet has also made a name for herself as a commercial spokesperson, author, reality television personality, and a highly sought after motivational speaker.
Janet executes speeches for top companies in varying fields including: She lives in Southern California with her husband Billy and their two young children, Sydney and Jake. She can be seen weekly reporting for NBC4 news at 11 a. Her most recent news stories can be viewed here. Follow her on Facebook here. She has covered a range of significant national stories from the Christopher Dorner manhunt to the Los Angeles Kings Stanley Cup win in Earlier in her career, she was stationed at Ground Zero for nearly two weeks while covering the World Trade Center tragedy.
As a breast cancer survivor, she has shared her own challenges during treatment and recovery with a series of stories on her courageous fight against the disease as a working mother and wife.
While not working, Lopez cherishes spending quality time with family and friends sharing stories with lots of good food and laughter. She resides in the Pasadena area with her husband and daughter. As the head of the Foundation, Lazarus spearheaded a new strategic focus for corporate giving, as well as engagement and advocacy, to ensure alignment with the newly established values of the company.
Lazarus has been instrumental in evolving the mission of the Foundation, establishing it as a leader in delivering play experiences to children in need. Lazarus has been a member of the Mattel family since In this position, Lazarus was a creative force behind these brands, successfully translating their business and marketing objectives into creative strategies that resonated with target audiences in meaningful ways.
During her tenure in Marketing, Lazarus brought a wealth of business marketing experience, and played an integral role in redefining brand strategies for core Mattel businesses. Additionally, in partnership with Warner Bros. Consumer Products, she launched the first ever girl-targeted Super Hero brand, which promoted girl empowerment. When Jake was 8 months old, he was diagnosed with a rare form of eye cancer, retinoblastoma.
The disease claimed his left eye before the tender age of one and in November Jake lost his right eye after battling the cancer for 12 years. Jake confronted many challenges during his battle and has used his experience to better himself as a person and develop a strong faith in God. Jake has shared his book and faith with countless others, including both adults and children that have been touched by his story.
He has a wholesomeness to his heart and spirit for life beyond his years. Jake is also a life-long University of Southern California football fan. He had the opportunity to meet the entire coaching staff and team as well as spend precious moments with the team leading up to his surgery and the weeks that followed. Meeting Coach Carroll and the team was a special experience for both Jake and the Trojans.
These relationships assisted Jake beyond measure during some of his most trying times and some of these relationships have grown into special friendships — especially with Coach Carroll. Jake attended the Super Bowl last year and spent some precious moments with Coach Carroll leading up to the big game.
Jake has been in front of corporations and service organizations with audience sizes in excess of 10, guests. Jake recognizes he has received much, and wants to give back more. In this spirit, Jake setup his own foundation — Out-of-Sight Faith — in order to raise needed funds to purchase technology for other blind children. This equipment and technology enable visually impaired children to perform better in school and achieve academic excellence.
Jake is also an honorary member of two other non-profit boards: Jake played football and golf in high school and is currently on the USC football team as one of the long snappers. It was a dream come true for Jake, and his story inspired millions of people all across the county. On top of football, he also enjoys skiing, surfing and playing the guitar. Jake has set a personal goal to become the first blind golfer to join the PGA golf tour.
Jake loves to help and serve others. Jake is not afraid to challenge himself or challenge others and has personally raised his expectations for his own life.
Jake can be followed at Open Your Eyes. He immediately found a way to impact the football team and the community upon arrival, and he never looked back. Known for his electrifying style on the court, Davis was a powerful point guard, who won national acclaim for executing in crucial, high-pressure moments, when his team needed him the most. An entrepreneur, investor, and businessman, Baron was one of the original investors for Vitaminwater and helped with the launch of Thrive Market.
Baron is also the founder of several companies, including Sports and Lifestyle in Culture SLIC , The Black Santa Company, and No Label—each with the objective of combining creative talent with original publication and production to develop and provide educational and heartwarming stories that appeal to global audiences of all ages. Baron also served as producer of the lauded documentaries, Crips and Bloods: Made In America, 30 for Sole Man, and The Drew: No Excuse, Just Produce, among others.
Davis is a mentor and coach for young, upcoming basketball players and a longtime supporter of the Boys and Girls Club of Venice. She is charged with advancing the Laureus mission to change the lives of youth and strengthen communities through the power of sport.
As a catalyst investor, Laureus supports the growth of organizations using sport to help youth reach their full potential. The Laureus research team then measures and proves the impact these programs are having on the health, education, employment and social cohesion of those youth.
During her eight year tenure, Benita oversaw of all WICT operations, programs and member services; tripled revenue and annual conference attendance; and doubled membership.
She was a member of the and U. One of eight U. His decade-plus experience in the surfing world has covered everything from press management to athlete liaising to digital product development, crisis communications, event planning, PR campaigns, partner relations and management of a global team of employees, contractors and agencies.
During his career in the athletic world, Smith was a spokesperson to corporations, schools, charities and the President of the United States. With over ten years of nonprofit leadership experience, Whiteman oversees operations, programs, charitable giving and fundraising. Education is a top priority for Whiteman and she is very active in the community. She earned a scholarship to attend a boarding high school in Connecticut where she excelled in soccer and caught the attention of acclaimed scholarship organizations.
She currently resides in Inglewood with her husband Timothy and their two young sons Timothy Jr. A California native, Dr. In , Gonzaga captured its ninth consecutive WCC crown and finished with a overall record. While at Gonzaga, Dr. Shaw has a passion for service in her communities; she assisted in the Special Olympic Regional Summer Games and Los Angeles World Games as the Field of Play Supervisor for basketball, earning the most outstanding volunteer award.
She has served in the non-profit sector participating internationally with Jumpball Basketball Programme, helping provide free basketball camps and clinics to communities in Jamaica and Haiti. Shaw has used her camp experience working with the Atlanta Hawks summer camp program. She has also presented at the WBCA Final Four, various universities, and professional development conferences on various topics covering LGBT safe spaces, teambuilding, networking, transitioning from assistant to head coach, and team culture.
In addition, to these accomplishments Dr. Shaw is a certified event planner and owner of Champion Photobooths, a photobooth rental company, based in California. Shaw graduated with a B. In this role, Caitlin leads the development and execution of a diverse portfolio of global, national, and locally-based programs, with a focus on getting kids active and reversing the physical inactivity epidemic.
Caitlin joined Nike, Inc. Prior to joining Nike, Caitlin spent seven years at Mattel, Inc. She is a graduate of the University of Virginia and resides in Portland, OR with her husband and son. Kerri Walsh Jennings is the most decorated beach volleyball Olympian of all-time, with three gold medals and one bronze medal. Her first Olympic appearance came in when she helped the U.
Team to a strong 4th place finish. She would go on to win gold in Athens in , gold in Beijing in , gold in London in , and bronze in Rio in She remains the winningest female beach volleyball player in history with wins.
Currently, Walsh Jennings resides in Manhattan Beach with her husband and three children. On that date, Mallory Weggemann received an epidural injection to help treat back pain; however, by the time it was finished, she was forever changed. Complications with the procedure left the college freshman paralyzed from the belly-button down.
Weggemann has been a competitive swimmer since the age of seven. After her injury at the age of 18, Weggemann chose to return to the pool. In April , her older sister found an article in the local newspaper highlighting the Paralympic Swimming Trials for the Beijing Paralympic Games.
Still coping with her new disability, Weggemann found one thing unchanged, her love for swimming. While attending the meet as a spectator with her sister, she met several of the US National Team coaches. The following Monday, Weggemann returned to the pool and has been swimming ever since.
She touts her Paralympic trials experience as life changing. Weggemann finished the meet with nine World Records.
In August , just days after being reclassified at the Paralympic Games in London, Mallory showcased her amazing abilities by winning gold and setting a Paralympic Record in the 50m freestyle. Mallory also anchored the bronze medal winning 4xm medley relay team, bringing USA back from fifth place to almost capturing gold!
It has been deemed one of the most memorable moments of the London Games, and it inspired many across the world. Just under four months after becoming paralyzed Mallory was back in the pool, with her eyes on Gold at the Paralympic Games.
Having achieved that goal, she decided it was time to chase her ultimate dream, to walk again. For years, this was something that was deemed impossible, but a new possibility arose and in order to achieve her goal, Mallory reached out to the public to ask for their support through a crowd funding Indiegogo campaign.
In order to accomplish this dream Mallory worked very closely with Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN to learn how to use her customized leg braces with the assistance of forearm crutches.
Currently, Weggemann just returned home from the the Paralympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and competed in an unprecedented seven individual events, while representing Team USA in her second Paralympic Games this past September. In addition, Mallory is actively building upon her career outside of the pool as a highly sought-after motivational speaker, writing and other public appearances around the world.
Mallory is currently publishing her work monthly for the Huffington Post on various motivational, inspirational and leadership topics and heavily involved in disability advocacy efforts on Capitol Hill, as well as serving as a board member on Delta Airlines Disability Advisory Board.
Mallory is also being featured in The Current , a documentary produced by Make A Hero, a non-profit organization focused on inspiring individuals with disabilities to enjoy the freedom of adaptive sports.
He began skateboarding at 12 years old and by 23 was volunteering as a mentor to troubled youth in a juvenile detention center teaching life lessons through skateboarding. Next Up empowers underprivileged youth by connecting them to education through skateboarding and creating opportunity for success never before imagined. Today the organization has served over 15, participants and is growing. She regularly teaches graduate courses in program evaluation and positive developmental science, trains graduate students in evaluation science, and evaluates youth development programs trying to make a meaningful difference in the lives of young people.
Over the past 15 years, Dr. Berry has directed more than 75 program evaluations across a range of content areas e. These evaluations have been designed to drive organizational improvement, identify critical conditions for success, and track optimal youth outcomes over time. More recently, she has partnered with LAUSD and the LA84 Foundation to evaluate the middle school sports program in LAUSD to understand the impact of high-quality school-based youth sports programs as well as how and why youth outcomes emerge during sports participation.
Berry and her colleagues have disseminated their evaluations broadly. She has published over 75 technical evaluation reports, published peer-reviewed articles in leading evaluation journals American Journal of Evaluation and New Directions for Evaluation and youth development journals Journal of Early Adolescence , and presented her findings annually at scientific and practitioner conferences.
In this capacity, Dr.
Famous Jackie Robinson Quotes On Civil Rights & Determination Published March 14, As the first Major League Baseball player to break the color barrier in the s, Brooklyn Dodger Jackie Robinson had to daily battle racism and gained the respect of generations while trailblazing for .
Like Jackie Robinson, these men used their talent and determination to overcome decades of racial discrimination in the sport that has stood as “America’s pastime.” The LA84 Foundation honors the five men who first crossed the color barrier of major league baseball.
On April 15, , Jackie Robinson becomes the first African-American in the major leagues when he plays his first game with the Brooklyn Dodgers. Jack Roosevelt Robinson was born into a family of sharecroppers on January 31, , in Cairo, Georgia. Comment: A+ Customer service! Satisfaction Guaranteed! Book is in Used-Good condition. Pages and cover are clean and intact. Used items may not include supplementary materials such as .
Jackie Robinson summary: Jackie Robinson is remembered as the man who broke the color barrier in major league baseball and was the first African American inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame (). His outstanding career with the Brooklyn Dodgers and his dignity in facing the insults and threats that were hurled at him broke down the racial barriers in "America’s Pastime" and opened the way for . Tuesday is the 67th anniversary of Jackie Robinson breaking the color barrier. A new movie titled "42" focuses on the Hall of Famer. Below are 7 quotes from Jackie Robinson made over the years.