Some institutions such as Colciencias , Colfuturo, and Icetex grant scholarships or provide awards in the form of forgivable loans. After two or two and a half years it is expected the research work of the doctoral candidate to be submitted in the form of oral qualification, where suggestions and corrections about the research hypothesis and methodology, as well as on the course of the research work are performed.
In Finland, the degree of filosofian tohtori abbreviated FT is awarded by traditional universities, such as University of Helsinki. A Master's degree is required, and the doctorate combines approximately 4—5 years of research amounting to 3—5 scientific articles, some of which must be first-author and 60 ECTS points of studies.
The licentiate filosofian lisensiaatti or FL requires only 2—3 years of research and is sometimes done before an FT. Before three research doctorates existed in France: After , only one type of doctoral degree remained, called "doctorate" Doctorat. The latter is equivalent to the Ph. Students pursuing the Ph. His or her research may be carried out in a laboratory, at a university, or in a company.
In the last case, the company hires the candidate and he or she is supervised by both the company's tutor and a labs' professor. The validation of the Ph. The financing of Ph. The most common procedure is a short-term employment contract called doctoral contract: However, the candidate can apply for funds from a company who can host him or her at its premises as in the case where Ph.
As another encountered situation, the company and the institute can sign together a funding agreement so that the candidate still has a public doctoral contract, but is daily located in the company for example, it is particularly the case of French Scientific Cooperation Foundation.
In India, generally, a master's degree is required to gain admission to a doctoral program. Direct admission to a Ph. In some subjects, doing a Masters in Philosophy M. In the last few years, there have been many changes in the rules relating to a Ph. After successful completion of the coursework, the students are required to give presentations of the research proposal plan of work or synopsis at the beginning, submit progress reports, give a pre-submission presentation and finally defend the thesis in an open defence viva-voce.
In Germany, admission to a doctoral program is generally on the basis of having an advanced degree i. A candidate must also find a tenured professor from a university to serve as the formal advisor and supervisor Betreuer of the dissertation throughout the doctoral program called Promotion. This supervisor is informally referred to as Doktorvater or Doktormutter , which literally translate to "doctor's father" and "doctor's mother" respectively.
While most German doctorates are considered equivalent to the PhD, an exception is the medical doctorate, where "doctoral" dissertations are often written alongside undergraduate study. The European Research Council decided in that those doctorates do not meet the international standards of a PhD research degree. Depending on the university, doctoral students Doktoranden can be required to attend formal classes or lectures, some of them also including exams or other scientific assignments, in order to get one or more certificates of qualification Qualifikationsnachweise.
Depending on the doctoral regulations Promotionsordnung of the university and sometimes on the status of the doctoral student, such certificates may not be required. Usually, former students, research assistants or lecturers from the same university, may be spared from attending extra classes. Instead, under the tutelage of a single professor or advisory committee, they are expected to conduct independent research.
In addition to doctoral studies, many doctoral candidates work as teaching assistants, research assistants, or lecturers.
Many universities have established research-intensive Graduiertenkollegs "graduate colleges" , which are graduate schools that provide funding for doctoral studies. The usual duration of a doctoral program largely depends on the subject and area of research; but, often three to five years of full-time research work are required. In , the median age of new Ph. The degree of Candidate of Sciences Russian: According to "Guidelines for the recognition of Russian qualifications in the other European countries" , in countries with a two-tier system of doctoral degrees like Russian Federation, some post-Soviet states, Germany, Poland, Austria and Switzerland , should be considered for recognition at the level of the first doctoral degree, and in countries with only one doctoral degree, the degree of Kandidat Nauk should be considered for recognition as equivalent to this Ph.
As most education systems only have one advanced research qualification granting doctoral degrees or equivalent qualifications ISCED ,  par. The Dottorato di ricerca research doctorate , abbreviated to "Dott. While the standard Ph. The first institution in Italy to create a doctoral program Ph.
Dottorato di ricerca in Italy were introduced by law and Presidential Decree in ,   referring to the reform of academic teaching, training and experimentation in organisation and teaching methods. Doctorate courses are open, without age or citizenship limits, to all those who already hold a " laurea magistrale " master degree or similar academic title awarded abroad which has been recognised as equivalent to an Italian degree by the Committee responsible for the entrance examinations.
The number of places on offer each year and details of the entrance examinations are set out in the examination announcement. A doctoral degree Pol. Commonly, students with a master's degree or equivalent are accepted to a doctoral entrance exam. The title of Ph. PhD is awarded in recognition of a substantial contribution to scientific knowledge, origination of new directions and visions in science. A PhD degree is a prerequisite for heading a university department in Ukraine.
The doctorate was introduced in Sweden in and in Denmark-Norway in and awarded in theology, law, and medicine, while the magister's degree was the highest degree at the Faculty of Philosophy, equivalent to the doctorate. Scandinavian countries were among the early adopters of a degree known as a doctorate of philosophy, based upon the German model.
Denmark and Norway both introduced the Dr. These degrees, however, became comparable to the German Habilitation rather than the doctorate, as Scandinavian countries did not have a separate Habilitation.
The degrees were uncommon and not a prerequisite for employment as a professor; rather, they were seen as distinctions similar to the British higher doctorates D. Denmark introduced an American-style Ph. Holders of a ph. In Sweden, the doctorate of philosophy was introduced at Uppsala University 's Faculty of Philosophy in In Sweden, the Latin term is officially translated into Swedish filosofie doktor and commonly abbreviated fil.
The degree represents the traditional Faculty of Philosophy and encompasses subjects from biology, physics, and chemistry, to languages, history, and social sciences, being the highest degree in these disciplines. Sweden currently has two research-level degrees, the Licentiate's degree, which is comparable to the Danish degree formerly known as the Licentiate's degree and now as the ph. Some universities in Sweden also use the term teknologie doktor for doctorates awarded by institutes of technology for doctorates in engineering or natural science related subjects such as materials science, molecular biology, computer science etc.
The Swedish term fil. Singapore has six universities offering doctoral study opportunities: They are granted by a university on behalf of the King, and its diploma has the force of a public document.
All doctoral programs are of a research nature. The studies should include original results and can take a maximum of three years, although this period can be extended under certain circumstances to 5 years. The student must write his thesis presenting a new discovery or original contribution to science. If approved by her or his "thesis director or directors ", the study will be presented to a panel of 3 distinguished scholars. Any doctor attending the public presentations is allowed to challenge the candidate with questions on his research.
If approved, he will receive the doctorate. Four marks can be granted: Unsatisfactory, Pass, Satisfactory, and Excellent. This right to cover their heads in the presence of the King is traditionally reserved in Spain to Grandees and Dukes. The concesion is remembered in solemn ceremonies held by the University by telling Doctors to take seat and cover their heads as a reminder of that royal leave. Universities admit applicants to Ph. Oxford abbreviate their Doctor of Philosophy degree as "DPhil", while most use the abbreviation "PhD"; these are in all other respects equivalent.
This is typically done after one or two years and the research work done may count towards the Ph. If a student fails to make satisfactory progress, he or she may be offered the opportunity to write up and submit for an MPhil degree as is the case at the King's College London and University of Manchester. In many universities, the MPhil is also offered as a stand-alone research degree. In the United Kingdom, funding for Ph. Higher fees are often charged for laboratory-based degrees.
This implies that the fourth year of Ph. Research Council funding is sometimes ' earmarked ' for a particular department or research group, who then allocate it to a chosen student, although in doing so they are generally expected to abide by the usual minimum entry requirements typically a first degree with upper second class honours, although successful completion of a postgraduate master's degree is usually counted as raising the class of the first degree by one division for these purposes.
The availability of funding in many disciplines means that in practice only those with the best research proposals, references and backgrounds are likely to be awarded a studentship. Since , there has been a move by research councils to fund interdisciplinary doctoral training centres which concentrate resources on fewer higher quality centres. Many students who are not in receipt of external funding may choose to undertake the degree part-time, thus reducing the tuition fees, as well as creating free time in which to earn money for subsistence.
There is usually a preliminary assessment to remain in the program and the thesis is submitted at the end of a three- to four-year program. These periods are usually extended pro rata for part-time students.
With special dispensation, the final date for the thesis can be extended for up to four additional years, for a total of seven, but this is rare. Since the early s, British funding councils have adopted a policy of penalising departments where large proportions of students fail to submit their theses in four years after achieving Ph. Furthermore, supervising staff are encouraged in their career progression to ensure that the Ph.
These issues contribute to an overall discrepancy between supervisors and Ph. There has recently been an increase in the number of Integrated Ph. These courses include a Master of Research MRes in the first year, which consists of a taught component as well as laboratory rotation projects. As this includes the MRes all deadlines and timeframes are brought forward to encourage completion of both MRes and Ph. These programs are designed to provide students with a greater range of skills than a standard Ph.
In the United Kingdom, Ph. Doctor of Letters or D. Doctor of Science , which may be granted on the recommendation of a committee of examiners on the basis of a substantial portfolio of submitted and usually published research.
However, some UK universities still maintain the option of submitting a thesis for the award of a higher doctorate. Recent years have seen the introduction of professional doctorates D.
Prof or ProfD , which are the same level as Ph. These are most notably in the fields of engineering Eng. Psych , occupational psychology D. These typically have a more formal taught component consisting of smaller research projects, as well as a 40,—60,word thesis component, which together are officially considered equivalent to a Ph. In the United States, the Ph. There are universities in the United States that award the Ph. The first phase consists of coursework in the student's field of study and requires one to three years to complete.
This often is followed by a preliminary , a comprehensive examination, or a series of cumulative examinations where the emphasis is on breadth rather than depth of knowledge. The student is often later required to pass oral and written examinations in the field of specialization within the discipline, and here, depth is emphasized.
Another two to eight years are usually required for the composition of a substantial and original contribution to human knowledge in the form of a written dissertation , which in the social sciences and humanities typically ranges from 50 to pages. In many cases, depending on the discipline, a dissertation consists of a comprehensive literature review, an outline of methodology, and several chapters of scientific, social, historical, philosophical, or literary analysis.
Typically, upon completion, the candidate undergoes an oral examination, sometimes public, by his or her supervisory committee with expertise in the given discipline. Depending on the specific field of study, completion of a Ph. The number of Ph. In , US universities awarded 8, Ph.
Graduate schools increasingly [ citation needed ] encourage their students to seek outside funding; many are supported by fellowships they obtain for themselves or by their advisers' research grants from government agencies such as the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health. Many Ivy League and other well-endowed universities provide funding for the entire duration of the degree program if it is short or for most of it.
At some universities, there may be training for those wishing to supervise Ph. There is now a lot of literature published for academics who wish to do this, such as Delamont, Atkinson, and Parry Indeed, Dinham and Scott have argued that the worldwide growth in research students has been matched by increase in a number of what they term "how-to" texts for both students and supervisors, citing examples such as Pugh and Phillips These authors report empirical data on the benefits that a Ph.
Wisker has noticed how research into this field has distinguished between two models of supervision: The technical-rationality model of supervision, emphasising technique; The negotiated order model, being less mechanistic and emphasising fluid and dynamic change in the Ph. These two models were first distinguished by Acker, Hill and Black ; cited in Wisker, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see PHD. List of doctoral degrees awarded by country. Education in Australia and Australian Qualifications Framework. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. November Learn how and when to remove this template message.
The examples and perspective in this article or section might have an extensive bias or disproportional coverage towards one or more specific regions. Please improve this article or discuss the issue on the talk page. Doctorates in the United Kingdom.
Graduate science education in the United States. Doctorat Bosnia and Herzegovina: Doctor of Philosophy PhD China: Licentiate , Magister , Ph. Filosofian tohtori and any degree of tohtori France: Dottorato di ricerca Japan: Doctor of Philosophy PhD Mexico: Doctor of Philosophy Ph. Magister , Licentiate , doctorates traditionally considered higher degrees , Ph. Doktora United Arab Emirates: Doctor of Philosophy PhD Ukraine: Journal of Further and Higher Education.
Retrieved 27 January The History of the University of Oxford: Very few persons had received even an honorary DLitt by when the Reverend E. Walker, Senior Tutor of Queen's, proposed, as the Oxford Magazine put it, that the University 'should divert the stream' of American aspirants to the German universities' degree of philosophiae doctor by opening the DLitt to persons offering a suitable dissertation nine terms after graduation.
Studies in Higher Education. Studium generale and the origins of university education in Europe. A history of the university in Europe: Universities in the Middle Ages. The universities of Europe in the Middle Ages. The Higher Education Academy, p. A History of the University in Europe: Steven Turner, "The growth of professorial research in Prussia, to A Theory Concerning the Dissertation".
The Journal of Higher Education. UK Council for Graduate Education. Historical Notes for the Mathematics Genealogy Projec". How the PhD came to Britain: A Century of Struggle for Postgraduate Education. German influences on education in the United States to A Centennial Salute to Yale, —". Journal of Higher Education. Higher Education in Transition: A History of American Colleges and Universities.
Geiger, "Research, graduate education, and the ecology of American universities: Goodchild and Harold S.
Veysey, The emergence of the American university is the standard history; see pp — Doctorates in the 20th Century. Archived from the original on 10 February The academic revolution ch 1. This is called the 'New Route Ph. For a list of programmes and institutions offering the 'new route' see http: These doctoral degrees, however, are sometimes identified in English as Ph.
Categories , Wageningen University; Ph. Am I missing anything? Just write your paper , as long as the writing does not distract you from your undergrad studies. If the paper has merit, you may be able to present it at a colloquium of your university, at a workshop, or even at a conference.
If you put some more work into it and are lucky, you might eventually be able to publish it in a journal. Certainly, your paper will open up more questions than it answers. Now you have a research trajectory that you can follow up and that may lead to a PhD thesis, based on but surely not limited to your first paper.
There is no reason why you should not start to work on your PhD topic already as an undergraduate, but it seems to me that you underestimate the time and work it takes to finish the PhD. And since PhDs require a lot of work, there are PhD programs, which facilitate the process and in which most PhDs are actually produced.
In that sense, writing your PhD outside of the designated framework is a bit like digging a well with a spoon. It can be done, but it is not too efficient. On top of that as others have said already , at many institutions, the written thesis is only one requirement among others to be awarded a title.
If my paper is credible, fruitful to my field and otherwise fulfilling the standards that any PhD thesis should. A research paper is not a thesis. Theses are usually expositions upon some field that the author has contributed to, and frequently contain extensive background that is typically omitted in academic literature. Indeed, many of my colleagues in industry have published research papers without having PhDs.
In addition, you would need to find a university to endorse your work, which often requires collaborating with faculty. Although, if your work is truly groundbreaking and you spend a lot of time hanging out at a particular campus, you might qualify for an honorary degree!
All this depends on the field, the country, etc. But typically not on a single paper. Over generalizing and assuming your research is genuinely interesting and meets all the sometimes arbitrary requirements of your field, a rough guideline is that you need material corresponding to at least three papers. Don't overlook the bit about finding an advisor: The PhD is really an apprenticeship under the supervision of a full professor. You don't ask a university or department for a doctorate, there is no process to submit a thesis and have it evaluated on your own, it's all driven by faculty members and you won't even be allowed to defend a thesis if it's not endorsed by one he or she would also typically help you recruit a jury.
Realistically, a mediocre thesis can be validated if a professor puts his or her mind to it, asks friends to sit in the jury, etc. Beyond that, others have mentioned extra requirements but the thesis is really the most important thing.
And there are ways around that if you have a good reason. But to be perfectly honest, your question suggests you are not very familiar with academia so it seems highly unlikely you would succeed in getting a PhD without proper support. I am not sure why you want one but if it's important to you, it might be a better idea to simply enroll in a PhD program. No, as commenter Zach H points out, doctoral programs also have other requirements, such as courses and sometimes exams. As commenters have shown, my answer was US-centric and thus incorrect.
I'd delete it, but that would delete the helpful comments below. An example of someone who did just this was Ludwig Wittgenstein. So yes you could, especially if you are a genius. Wittgenstein wrote the Tractatus during his free time and it was used as his thesis for his Cambridge PhD.
Wittgenstein came to feel that he could not get to the heart of his most fundamental questions while surrounded by other academics, and so in he retreated to the village of Skjolden in Norway, where he rented the second floor of a house for the winter.
He later saw this as one of the most productive periods of his life, writing Logik Notes on Logic , the predecessor of much of the Tractatus. In the summer of Wittgenstein took military leave and went to stay in one of his family's Vienna summer houses, Neuwaldegg.
It was there in August that he completed the Tractatus. Russell noted that his previous residency was sufficient for a PhD, and urged him to offer the Tractatus as his thesis. It was examined in by Russell and Moore; at the end of the thesis defence, Wittgenstein clapped the two examiners on the shoulder and said, "Don't worry, I know you'll never understand it.
PhD programs provide funding for, typically, no more than four years. Given that the average time to completion is well in excess of that it was ten years in the UC Berkeley English department last time I checked , the reality is that the majority of PhD theses are completed during time not spent doing remunerated work, which is another name for "free time". So yes, not only can you do a PhD thesis in your free time, in most cases that's what you'll end up doing even if you enroll in a formal PhD program.
So, a thesis is a must but not all for a PhD degree. The degree requires years of academic training, not as simple as just one thesis, or several published research papers. Thank you for your interest in this question. Because it has attracted low-quality or spam answers that had to be removed, posting an answer now requires 10 reputation on this site the association bonus does not count.
Would you like to answer one of these unanswered questions instead?
The UC PhD is a research-only degree (no coursework) which can be completed in over 80 disciplines, carried out under academic supervision and using world class facilities. In addition to your thesis research, UC offers a number of workshops and seminars for thesis students to develop general skills such as career planning, time management.
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) Dissertation Only Program. The Doctor of Philosophy, PH.D., Dissertation thesis (British Model) is designed to equip students for creative scholarship and independent research.
It's normal in the UK for the thesis to be the only mandatory requirement for a PhD (but this is not to say that anyone with a thesis-esque document could walk in and be awarded a degree). – dbmag9 May 31 '15 at The Ph.D. Dissertation Handbook is designed to make the process of writing proposals and. Exclusive of appendices, the thesis should not exceed. By Dora Farkas, PhD on January 29, Almost three years ago, doctoral students started opposing the .
Dissertation Only Degree. Dissertation/ Thesis Only Degree Programs ThM, ThD, PhD Writing Center Apply to Dissertation/Thesis only degree program (Online form) (Online enrollment form) Apply to Dissertation/Thesis only degree program (PDF) pages for the Th.D. or Ph.D. How I wrote a PhD thesis in 3 months August 13, February 28, by James Hayton Before reading this post please note: it took three and a half years of full-time research to gather the data for my PhD thesis; the three months refers only to the writing, which I did quickly at the end.