He described that job satisfaction varies in fact according to what a person seeks in a job, how he or she ranks the items sought in order to priority, and how well the job permits the person to achieve the various personal goals.
Job satisfaction is simply how people feel about their jobs and different aspects of their jobs. It is the extent to which people like satisfaction or dislike dissatisfaction their jobs Spector, According to McKenna , the most frequently adopted approach to measuring job satisfaction involves the use of rating scales that are standard instrument that are designated to provide feedback on specific examples of employee satisfaction and dissatisfaction.
He also mentioned that there are other techniques for measuring job satisfaction such as critical incidents and interviews. The technique in which the employees are requested to focus on some situation or incident that is related to job satisfaction is known as critical incident technique where the employees experience greater freedom to express themselves, unlike the situation with rating scales.
Another technique interview that is regarded as more open-ended approach than critical incidents and where interviews offer interviewee wider scope in terms of response McKenna, p.
Moreover, Archnahr, et al. The psychometric tools are the most effective and efficient to measure level of job satisfaction. Other tools that can be used to measure job satisfaction include- global measure that measures the overall satisfaction of the job; facet measure where satisfaction is measured on each aspect of the job. According to Stanton et al. This JDI items include- working environment, payment, promotion, supervision and relations with co-workers etc.
However, other researchers have used JDI in relation to measure level of job satisfaction. For instance, the JDI is an instrument that is used to assess job satisfaction more than any other inventory Kinicki, The basis for the Job Descriptive Index is that job satisfaction is important for three different reasons: Their arguments are based on the idea that workers deliberately decide to find satisfaction in their jobs and perceive them as worthwhile.
Several authors and researcher have revealed that job satisfaction is an important aspect within the organizational performance, particularly in the hospitality and hotel industry as the business is concern with services through the employees. For example, according to Nguyen, et al. They suggest that employers benefit from satisfied employees as they are more likely to profit from lower staff turnover and higher productivity if their employees experience a high level of job satisfaction.
Work performance measurement is an integral and crucial part within the organization. If the organization does not establish proper and appropriate performance measurement system, they cannot measure and evaluate the organizational performance itself. So, it is vital to measure work performance of employees by adopting and implementing some tools and techniques through setting some criteria.
For example, Hakala has proposed following ways to measure employee performance work performance -. The measurement of efficiency and productivity regard as the vital tools and techniques for the purpose of measurement of work performance Gillikin, He also mentioned that a time study approach can be used to measure the efficiency of an employee.
Productivity is simply the amount of units of a product or service that an employee handles in a defined time frame Gillikin, He also mentioned that the measure of employee work output can be used to measure the productivity that employee. Abilla has developed equations that can be used to measure efficiency and productivity of employees within the organization. Kaplan and Norton have proposed a balanced scorecard or a balanced set of measures in relation to measure work performance within an organization, particularly by the top managers of the organization.
The United States Office of Personnel Management has proposed that there are 5 key components in relation to performance measurement that include- planning, monitoring, developing, rating and rewarding etc. Relationship between job satisfaction and work performance. This is an important area of research because job satisfaction is correlated to enhanced job performance, positive work values, high levels of employee motivation, and lower rates of absenteeism, turnover and burnout Begley and Czajka, ; and Tharenou, Several authors have described that there is close and vital relations with the job satisfaction and work performance within an organization.
The most prominent researchers and authors who have worked on it include- Judge et al. There are also stronger relationships depending on specific circumstances such as mood and employee level within the company Morrison, Some of these models view the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance to be unidirectional, that either job satisfaction causes job performance or vice versa. Another model stated that the relationship is a reciprocal one; this has been supported by the research of Wanous The underlying theory of this reciprocal model is that if the satisfaction is extrinsic, then satisfaction leads to performance, but if the satisfaction is intrinsic, then the performance leads to satisfaction.
Other models suggest there is either an outside factor that causes a seemingly relationship between the factors or that there is no relationship at all, however, neither of these models have much research.
George and Brief and Isen and Baron both founded that job satisfaction can lead better work performance of the employees within an organization. Bishay postulates that if employees are satisfied with their work they will show greater commitment and thus more better performances within the organization.
Conversely, dissatisfied workers with negative attitudes will ultimately leave the organisation. The researcher will try to find the application and implementation any models for the purpose of identifying relationships of job satisfaction with work performance within the case studied organization, Grange Hotels, UK. According to Yousef , job satisfaction and organizational performance is closely related because if the employees are satisfied then there will be no tardiness, absenteeism and turnover that will improve the work performance and organizational productivity.
Moreover, factors that are associated with job satisfaction linked to increase productivity and organizational effectiveness that affect the work performance of the employees Buitendach and de Witte, According to Nimalathasan , the employees who are satisfied with their job can create more effort that will create better organizational performances as well as he or she can provide better performance from him or her. The organization has to ensure job satisfaction to achieve organizational goals and objectives.
On the other hand, job satisfaction can provides mental refreshment, good relations with co-workers, good relations with supervisor etc. Job satisfaction has both positive and negative consequences within the organization. For instance, Hodgetts has described that the outcomes or consequences of job satisfaction in relation to performance, employee turnover and absenteeism. All of the features can be termed as to assess the roles of job satisfaction on the work performance of the employees within an organization.
Moreover, some other prominent researchers have mentioned that job satisfaction has role to work performance in several ways. For instance, satisfied employees provide a higher level of external service quality, the service experience that customers receive and evaluate, which leads to increased customer satisfaction, stated by Heskett et al.
Job satisfaction has one most crucial role within the organization in relation to human resource management HRM. The issue of turnover is an important concern for the purpose of human resources management. Several authors have revealed that there is closely a relationship with the job satisfaction and turnover that affect human resources management and thus work performance of the employees within an organization.
As an example, Hackman and Oldham have described that job satisfaction is generally believed a higher job satisfaction is associated with increased productivity, lower absenteeism, and lower employee turnover.
Amah noted that employee turnover can be reduced through increasing job satisfaction. The satisfied employees are willing to involve in more volunteering within the organization that increase more productivity of them and thus reduce turnover of them.
According to Mudor and Tooksoon , HRM practices in specific internal fit as an ideal set of practices which identify three variables; supervision, job training, and pay practices believed to influence job satisfaction and toward turnover of the employees, as some of the practices of high the performance working system practices by previous HRM researchers such as Bradley et al.
From the review, it is clear that the job satisfaction has impact on the several issues and concepts such as organizational performance, employee performance, turnover and absenteeism, employee productivity, service quality of employees and human resources management etc.
So, there should be initiatives by the researcher to explore and evaluate about the impact of job satisfaction on the above mentioned issues and concepts. During the critical review of the literature, the researcher has identified several issues and concepts that are closely related with the job satisfaction and work performance of employees within an organization, particularly in hospitality industry Hotels. The theoretical framework of references can be represent as follows-.
Internal marketing, leadership, empowerment and job stress etc. McKennaApproaches such as rating scales, critical incidents, interviews etc. According to Saunders et al. This research project is based on the effect of job satisfaction and work performance of employees within an organization such as Grange Hotels, UK.
The key issues and concepts that have been explored and identified from the critical review of literature in accordance with research aims and objectives can be shown as follows-.
There may have some lacking with the collection of data and information in relation to research aims and objectives from the critical review of literature for several reasons. For example, time constraints are the most vital limiting factor that affects the data and information from the literature review. The lack of available financial resources is also another limiting factor that affects the review of literature activities in relation to collect and gather data and information in relation to research aims and objectives.
Thus, the researcher would like to mention that due to shortage of time and less financial resources can affect the collection and gathering of data and information from the critical review of literature. The discussion of research methodology is an important part within the research project, because it has great influences on the overall research activities and thus to make good piece of research work with valid conclusion and recommendation in accordance with research aims, objectives and research questions.
For example, Kothari p. Thus, it can say that research methodology is vital to set out appropriate ways and guidance by which the research will be complete in a most effectively and efficiently. In this chapter, there have been discussed and explained some major issues and concepts within the research methodology.
These include- research philosophy, research approach, data collection methods, alternative research methods, data analysis tools and techniques, consideration of ethical issues in research methods, advantages of used research methods, limitations associated with used research methods and how to minimize those limitations, and overall reflection on the research methodology etc.
Thus, the author would like to mention that this chapter has covered all of the relevant issues and concepts within the research methodology in relation to this research project- an investigation and analysis of the. The consideration of research philosophy is important and vital part within the research project in relation to make good piece of research report Saunders et al.
This research project is based on the cause-effect relationships, so the researcher believes that positivism research philosophy was most appropriate and relevant in relation to this research project. The reasons were as follows-. According to Tobin , there are several elements on the research that are based either on the empirical or non-empirical or combination of the two research approach. In relation to empirical research approach, there are following sub research approach-.
Among those research approaches, deductive vs inductive research approach is mostly used in the business and management research, particularly in the field of cause-and-effect relationships research.
So, it is clear that either deductive or inductive will be applicable to complete research work through using appropriate research methods to collect primary and secondary data and information from several sources. The reasons for using inductive research approach were as follows-.
Data collection both primary and secondary is an important part of the research project. If the researcher does not collect and gather appropriate and relevant data, he or she cannot make good piece of research report in accordance with research aims, objectives and questions. In this case, the researcher needs to consider some things within the data collection. The researcher has covered all of the relevant issues in the data collection methods within this chapter of research methodology.
All of the research questions have been designated in such as way that reflected the overall research aims, objectives and research questions. For example, the interview questions were designated with both open-ended and closed-ended, mostly using Likert scale questions.
The survey questions has been designated through focusing research aims, objectives and research questions by putting both open-ended and closed-ended questions, mostly using Likert scale. The researcher believes that the questionnaire design was perfect and appropriate in relation to collect and gathers real data and information about the job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within the case studied organization, Grange Hotels, UK. Sample size and sampling techniques: To determine sample size is an important concern for the researcher to collect relevant data from the right people or respondents within the case studied organization.
In case study, research approach, there may require small sample of the respondents because of particular research area. In relation to semi-structured interviews, there were 3 interviewees to collect the real data and information about the case studied organization.
There were 20 employees questionnaire survey out off 35 full-time and part-time employees within the Holborn branch to collect primary data from them about the job satisfaction and work performance within the organization, Grange Hotels, UK. Simple random sampling technique has been used both in semi-structured interviews and questionnaire survey for the purpose of collecting primary data in relation to job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within the case studied organization, Grange Hotels, UK.
The researcher has collected primary data through conducting semi-structured interviews of the management personnel and by carrying put questionnaire survey of the general employees of the case studied organization, Grange Hotels, UK.
The researcher thought that these two methods were appropriate and effective collect relevant data in accordance with job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within an organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK.
The researcher has used this method to collect secondary data in accordance with job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within an organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK. Pilot study and pilot testing: According to Maxwell , pilot study and testing helps a student to design the dissertation research thorough improving skills and competencies in conducting interviews, survey and to improve knowledge and understanding about the research topic.
In addition, Saunders et al. The researcher has conducted pilot study and testing with peers for the purpose of getting maximum response from the respondents and interview personnel within the case studied organization, Grange Hotels, UK. After completing pilot study and testing, the researcher did some modifications within the research questions that helped her to collect more appropriate and relevant data and information during the final semi-structured interviews and questionnaire survey.
Thus, the researcher would like to mention that the pilot study and testing helped her to collect appropriate data and information through conducting and carrying out semi-structured interviews and questionnaire survey in most effective and efficient ways within the case studied organization, Grange Hotels, UK. Validity, reliability and generalisability: Muijs has stated that validity, reliability and generalisability are the three key concepts in quantitative research methods to measure something within the research.
According to Muijs , validity determines the answer what the researcher wants to measure. He mentioned that there are mainly three types of validity such as content validity, criterion validity and construct validity. The researcher has ensured the validity of the research findings through presenting real data and information about the case studied organization, Grange Hotels, UK.
The research report was able to satisfy to the management personnel of the case studied organization by providing cost-effective and constructive conclusions and recommendations in relation to job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within the organization.
Another most concern for the researcher within the research methodology is the reliability of the research itself and the research findings Babbie, He also described that the researcher may face several problems within the research project in terms of reliability of data collection and research report. In this research project, the researcher has conducted pilot study and then final study in relation to semi-structured interviews and questionnaire survey.
The third important aspect within the research methodology is the generalisability of the research findings and the overall research works. Veal has defined the generalisability as to the probability that the results of the research findings apply to other subjects, other groups, and other conditions. This research project is based on the job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within an organization, so the research findings are easily applicable to other organization.
This concept of motivation is applicable within hospitality as well as other organization. Like this, the primary data also reflect the general aspects regarding job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within an organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK. Thus, the researcher would like to say that the research findings are applicable to other organization in relation job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within the organization.
Thus, the research questions, both semi-structured and survey questionnaire based on the evidence and empirical knowledge existing in the literature and case studied organization.
Both qualitative and quantitative data have been collected and gathered during the review of literature and conducting interviews and questionnaire survey within the case studied organization. There may use of some alternative research methods to investigate and analyse job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within an organization. These include- field experiment, observation, and other related research methods.
These research methods are time consuming and cost-extensive as well. The author want to say that all the used research methods were relevant and appropriate to collect and gather all required data and information in relation to research aims, objectives and research questions. The quantitative data have been analysed through using tables, graphs, charts, and other related tools and techniques.
The chapter 4 has been designated to present analysed data both of qualitative and quantitative data. The consideration of some ethical issues is vital for the completion of research project as well as to make good piece of research report. For instance, Saunders et al. The researcher has to follow and maintain some relevant ethical issues to ensure access to the case studied organization as well as maintain honesty and integrity during the execution of research project.
The most common ethical issues that should be followed and maintained by the researcher include- honesty, integrity, acknowledgment, confidentiality, objectivity, fairness, etc.
The researcher has acknowledged all previous works that have been used in this research report. The researcher has ensured proper access to the case studied organization through the sending letter of informed consent. In similar ways, she has followed and maintained some relevant ethical issues such as confidentiality, privacy, honesty, integrity and fairness etc.
The advantages of the used research methods can be shown as follows-. Questionnaire survey To collect data about the perception of the job satisfaction and work performance of the employees from the general employees within the case studied organization; and. To collect data on level of job satisfaction and how this affect does the performance of the general employees within the case studied organization. Based on the research methods, the researcher has collected and gathered most relevant and appropriate data and information to prepare standard research report with valid conclusions and recommendations.
In conclusion, the researcher would like to mention that the chapter 3: Research findings and their analysis is one the most important chapter within the research report. For example, Saunders et al. In this chapter, the researchers has presented primary research findings in such way that was very appropriate to cover all of the issues and concepts in relation to research findings and analysis.
Thus, the researcher would like to mention that this chapter will be able to represent both primary and secondary data and information that was collected and gathered in accordance with research aims, objectives and research questions etc.
The researcher has conducted only 3 interviews with the management personnel, such as with Branch Manager, General Manager and Assistant Manager. The questionnaire survey was carried out among 20 employees out off 35 full-time and part-time employees within the Holborn branch of the Grange Hotels, UK. The presentation and analysis of the primary data has been divided into two parts- Part 1: Semi-structured interview results and their analysis; and Part 2: Questionnaire survey results and their analysis.
There were nearly questions within the interview questionnaire that were based on the issues arrived during the critical review of literature as well as on the research aims and objectives and the duration of each interview was nearly minutes. The findings from the semi-structured interviews can be represent and analysis in following ways-. What are the major issues and matters that needs to consider by the organization in relation to job satisfaction and work performance of the employees [Interview Q].
What are the major techniques to motivate employees that lead to job satisfaction and thus better work performance of the employees [Interview Q]. Thus, the author would like to mention that to motivate employees that can lead to the job satisfaction and thus better work performance within an organization, following major techniques can be applied and implemented-. How the organization is measuring work performance of employees of the Grange Hotels, UK?
All of the interviewee has agreed that there is no particular system for the purpose of measuring work performance of the employees within the Grange Hotels, UK.
But they have mentioned that in some cases, the organization is using following tools and techniques to measure the work performance of the employees-. As the case studied organization, Grange Hotels, UK in most cases, is not applying or implementing tools and techniques to measure the work performance of the employees, so the author would like to say that the organization having some problem in relation to job satisfaction and work performance of the employees.
Do you think better organizational structure and culture plays important and crucial role to increase job satisfaction and work performance of the employees within an organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK?
The researcher has find that all interviewees 3 people are agreed and strongly agreed with the role of better organizational structure and culture to increase job satisfaction and thus work performance of the employees within an organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK.
Thus, the researcher would like to opine that the management personnel are agreed with the role of better organizational structure and culture for the purpose of ensuring better job design, job description and job enrichment that will increase job satisfaction and thus ultimately the work performance of the employees within the organization, like Grange Hotels, UK.
Please provide some recommendations on how the organization Grange Hotels, UK can improve job satisfaction that lead to increased and enhanced work performance of the employees? The interview results derived from the all interviewees 3 people in relation to recommendations on how the organization can improve job satisfaction that will lead better work performance of the employees can be represent as follows-. The researcher has carried out 20 questionnaire survey among the 35 employees both full-time and part-time within the Grange Hotels, Holborn Branch, UK.
The researcher believed that she was able to collect all relevant data from the 20 respondents as all the employees were very co-operative and they took part through voluntarily in the questionnaire survey. The questionnaire survey results and their analysis can be represent as follows-. What are the main factors and aspects that are favourable for job satisfaction within the Hotel?
How do you feel about the relationships with other people at work within the Grange Hotels, UK? The survey results depicts that the majority of the general employees are satisfied, either in some cases or overall satisfied with the relationships with other employees within the organization. Thus, it can be said that there is greater chance to increase job satisfactions and thus improve work performance of the employees within the case studied organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK.
How do you feel about the actual job itself within the Grange Hotels, UK? The job itself plays significant role to determine the job satisfaction and thus work performance of the general employees within an organization.
So, it can be said that the job itself has influence on the job satisfaction and thus work performance of the employees within an organization, such as Grange Hotels, UK. How do you feel about the current career opportunities within the Grange Hotels, UK? From the results, it can be concluded that the general employees are not satisfied at all with the career opportunities within the organization. Most writers will only take a day or a few hours to start.
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