The exact nature of the experimental process may vary, but they all adhere to the same basic principles. Scientists can be opinionated, like anybody else, and often will adhere to their own theories, even if the evidence shows otherwise. Research is a tool by which they can test their own, and each others' theories, by using this antagonism to find an answer and advance knowledge.
The purpose of research is really an ongoing process of correcting and refining hypotheses , which should lead to the acceptance of certain scientific truths. Whilst no scientific proof can be accepted as ultimate fact, rigorous testing ensures that proofs can become presumptions. Certain basic presumptions are made before embarking on any research project, and build upon this gradual accumulation of knowledge. Check out our quiz-page with tests about:. Martyn Shuttleworth Aug 2, Retrieved Sep 14, from Explorable.
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Leave this field blank: Want to stay up to date? Maybe I am being a little to 'meta' about all this. The purpose of psychology is to explore, to describe and to explain how and why a person thinks, feels and acts. Exploratory research is defined as the initial research into a hypothetical or theoretical idea. This is where a researcher has an idea or has observed something and seeks to understand more about it. An exploratory research project is an attempt to lay the groundwork that will lead to future studies or to determine if what is being observed might be explained by a currently existing theory.
Most often, exploratory research lays the initial groundwork for future research. To make this a little more understandable, imagine you are blindfolded or placed into a room without light. You are not told if something is in the room, but you have a suspicion there is something in there. You shuffle out slowly into the room, exploring with the tips of your fingers until you find something. Exploratory research can come in two big forms: A new topic is often unexpected and startling in its findings.
For example, American psychologist John Watson really began his behaviorism research with a new topic on the study of human behaviors and learning: Because humans have brains and rats have brains, it makes a certain kind of sense. There was an attempt to find the universal laws of learning in all brains.
New angles can come from new ways of looking at things, either from a theoretical perspective or a new way of measuring something. For instance, computers have allowed large populations to be looked at. Old experiments can now involve thousands of people from around the globe instead of a few people from the local train station. Once the groundwork is established, the newly explored field needs more information.
The next step is descriptive research , defined as attempts to explore and explain while providing additional information about a topic.
This is where research is trying to describe what is happening in more detail, filling in the missing parts and expanding our understanding. This is also where as much information is collected as possible instead of making guesses or elaborate models to predict the future - the 'what' and 'how,' rather than the 'why. Remember that room you're blind in? Descriptive research is the act of exploring the thing in the dark, creating a fuller picture of what you are looking at.
You begin to fill in what you know with what you find. We now have the clearest picture in all of history of the thinking, living brain. Just a few decades ago, a person who wanted to look at a living brain had two options: Both options are better than a century ago, where you kind of had to wait for someone to die to examine their brain.
Research over the last few decades has been expanding our understanding, providing descriptions of the active processes in the brain. One field that is quickly growing is the field of forensic psychology.
Over the last few decades, studies exploring the decision making process of police officers, the techniques used to question witnesses and the jury processes are all being examined. There has been an active interest in many researchers to explore the field that the judicial system needs. For instance, looking into eyewitness memory studies reveals research explaining and describing the factors that influence what people see.
For example, did you know that a person with different lights shining at different angles on a person's face can alter a person's entire look, including their ethnicity? How about that, even in broad daylight, people still get gender of perpetrators and victims mixed up? Get access risk-free for 30 days, just create an account. We began exploring something new with exploratory research. Then, we conducted descriptive research to increase our knowledge of it.
Lastly, we need to explain it. Explanatory research is defined as an attempt to connect ideas to understand cause and effect, meaning researchers want to explain what is going on. Explanatory research looks at how things come together and interact. This research does not occur until there is enough understanding to begin to predict what will come next with some accuracy. The person in the dark has fully explored the elephant and understands what it looks like.
Now, the process of 'how did it get here' and 'where is it going next' comes into play. This often requires imaginative studies, more so than just touching an elephant in the dark. Explanatory research never really ends because new ideas, techniques and information are constantly increasing. This is sort of like, 'the more you know, the more you realize you need to learn. For instance, there was a time in psychology that everyone who was anyone was a behaviorist.
As time went on, the field kept running into the 'black box' a term given to the ephemeral mind. Over time, the field of behaviorism went into a sidetrack and developed into the study of cognition and neural processes. Exploratory research can also end when something has been sufficiently explained to be incorrect. For instance, the study of phrenology, or the measuring of bumps on the head to determine your personality and characteristics, was discovered to be a garbage theory.
Explanatory research is typically concerned with understanding the relationship between things and how they are in the past and the future.
This often takes the form of a quantitative approach so that statistical tests can be conducted. Due to the large number of experiments occurring, pinpointing a single researcher or study is difficult.
However, examples of explanatory research include examining the neural development and degradation of drug addicts, as well as the effects of lifestyle on IQ tests in adults and children. Each of these has a great deal of studies behind it, and the current researchers are attempting to pinpoint the exact cause-and-effect relationships between the variables involved.
Exploratory research is the initial research into a hypothetical or theoretical idea. It is the first step in learning about something. Somebody gets a new idea in their head, and it leads research in a new direction. Next, is descriptive research , which provides more elaborate descriptions and information. Descriptive research helps fill in the research community's understanding of the initial exploratory studies.
Last is explanatory research , which attempts to connect ideas to understand cause and effect. This occurs when researchers are beginning to understand what they are looking at and trying to create models of cause and effect. To unlock this lesson you must be a Study. Did you know… We have over college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1, colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree.
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Surveys, Interviews, and Case Studies. Researcher Variables that Affect Internal Validity. Basic Research and Applied Research: Selecting a Problem to Research. The Importance of Understanding Research Methodology. Research Methods in Psychology: Research Methods in Psychology for Teachers: Information Systems and Computer Applications.
Devin Kowalczyk Devin has taught psychology and has a master's degree in clinical forensic psychology. There is a parallel between how people come to understand something and the process of researching an idea. Purpose of Research As you probably already know, there are many reasons why research is done. Exploratory Research Exploratory research is defined as the initial research into a hypothetical or theoretical idea. Descriptive Research Once the groundwork is established, the newly explored field needs more information.
One of the major benefits of purposive sampling is the wide range of sampling techniques that can be used across such qualitative research designs; purposive sampling techniques that range from homogeneous sampling through to critical case sampling, expert sampling, and more.
A purposive sample is a non-probability sample that is selected based on characteristics of a population and the objective of the study. Purposive sampling is also known as judgmental, selective, or subjective sampling.
Alternatively, purposive sampling method may prove to be effective when only limited numbers of people can serve as primary data sources due to the nature of research design and aims and objectives. research, as people are constantly looked upon for knowl- The purposive sampling technique is a type of non-probability sampling that is most effective when one needs to study a certain cultural domain with knowledgeable experts within. Purposive sampling may also be used with both qualitative and quantitative re-.
A form of non-probability sampling in which decisions concerning the individuals to be included in the sample are taken by the researcher, based upon a . Exploratory research is defined as the initial research into a hypothetical or theoretical idea. This is where a researcher has an idea or has observed something and seeks to understand more about it.