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The Scientific Revolution

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❶The Industrial evolution which began in Great Britain in the eighteenth century, and still continues in certain parts of the world, is considered by some historians to be the most significant transformation in the economic environment of human civilization after the Neolithic evolution.




Second, the scientific revolution undermined the religious limitation and control of scientific discovery. In the middle ages the church dominated everything from private life to determining those who ruled countries.

Galileo confirmed that the heliocentric theory was true via his invention of the telescope. Galileo was tried by the papacy and forced to confess that he was wrong. By the time of Sir Isaac Newton, England had thrown off the shackles of the papacy and Sir Newton was able to flourish in his attempts to explain the natural universe. Lastly, the scientific revolution broadened how science was to be used. All this changed in the scientific revolution.

Now, men wanted to develop their own explanations for how things worked. Kepler used mathematical equations and theory to explain planetary orbits while Descartes used his own mind to question the world around him. The Royal society directly combated dogma by employing laboratory experiments and natural observation. The scientific revolution effectively broke the mold of controlling entities and early scientists themselves were able to use methods as they saw fit.

As the scientific revolution challenged the authorities of the past, it gave rise to new methods and theories that have dominated the core of what we call modern science.

The desire for tangible proof, repeatable experimentation, and facts determined by the senses are all valued contributions from the scientific revolution. No longer was the world constructed as the somewhat simple Ptolemaic Model suggested. The Earth for the first time became explicable and was no longer the center of the universe. Many beliefs that had been held for hundreds of years now proved to be false. In addition to this, the Roman Catholic Church, which had always clarified the movements of the universe with the divine power of God, was now questioned by many.

The Roman Catholic Church was naturally set as an opponent of the Scientific Revolution, not so much because of opposition to new ideas but instead because the new information contradicted the model of the world the church had created.

Fortunately the revolution did not happen overnight but moderately over a year period. Nicolaus Copernicus was one of the first astronomers to question the single worldview that the Christian faith supported. Though it was in the later years of his life that the he published On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres, the question was now raised as to the correctness of the mechanics of the world.

In his writings, Copernicus was not able to accurately describe the revolutions of the Earth, Sun and Stars, but he was the first man to use mathematics and observation in order to create a more accurate picture of the universe. However, in order to conform to the Roman Catholic Church, Copernicus expressed himself carefully.

Instead of stating his findings freely and allowing the Roman Catholic Church to In five pages an English emphasis in a comparison of these two revolutions is featured. Five sources are cited in the bibliograph Paolo Rossi, Francis Bacon: From Magic to Science trans.

Chicago Press, , pursues the role of hermeticism, along with other influences, in the thought of Bacon. Two articles by Robert S. California Press, , take issue with a strand of scholarship, following Yates's work, that has argued for the continuing influence of hermetic themes through the seventeenth century. So also does Brian Vickers's introductory essay in the volume he edited, Occult and Scientific Mentalities in the Renaissance Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Most of the essays in the Vickers volume expound aspects of the hermetic tradition.

Macmillan, , the book of a philosopher ultimately concerned with philosophical issues attached to the mechanical philosophy, and Marie Boas Hall, "The Establishment of the Mechanical Philosophy," Osiris , , Carolyn Merchant, The Death of Nature: Newton has been the subject of an enormous body of scholarship, especially during the last two decades.

Much of it is highly technical, and in any case I could not begin to list a significant portion of it in this short essay. Anyone wanting to proceed further with Newton can quickly learn about the literature through the bibliographies and notes of the works that I do list here. The last two decades have also witnessed extensive publications of Newton's manuscripts, sometimes papers on given topics, sometimes collections of papers and manuscripts. All of these volumes, which one can readily find in catalogue of any major library, contain prefaces and introductions; these essays are frequently the most advanced literature on Newton but are certainly not addressed to beginners.

MIT , which contains papers on every aspect of Newton as it was then understood. Though many details have changed as a result of more recent research, the volume remains valuable. Six scholars have been among the prominent interpreters of Newton. Press, , is, as its name implies a collection of short pieces concerned with Newton.

Cohen, Franklin and Newton Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, , a history of early electrical science, helped to initiate the boom in Newtonian research. Although subsequent work, including Cohen's own, has revised some details, the book remains an important introduction, not so much to Newton's mathematical physics as to his speculations on the nature of physical reality.

Recently Cohen summarized his life-long interest in an important interpretation of Newton's science that does center on mathematical physics, The Newtonian Revolution Cambridge: Notre Dame Press, , investigates the conception of physical reality that stood behind the mathematical physics.

A similar theme, with emphasis on the influence of Neoplatonic philosophy on Newton, animates a series of papers by J. Hall, whose interpretation of Newtonian science can be found in his books on the Scientific Revolution, has also written the best study of Newton's quarrel with Leibniz on priority in the invention of the calculus, Philosophers at War Cambridge: The book does not attempt to deal with the history of the mathematics itself; it is, therefore, also a contribution to the social history of science.

Henry Guerlac, best known for his work on chemistry in the eighteenth century, has also written a number of influential papers on Newton. Some of them can be found in his volume Newton on the Continent Ithaca: John Hopkins Press, Press, , is easily the best examination of a subject only seriously opened during the last decade and likely to remain, as its name suggests, a topic of acrid controversy in the interpretation of Newton.

Press, , should perhaps more properly be listed among books on the external history of science, to which it is one of the most prominent recent additions; in its focus specifically on Newtonian science, which it relates to the social and political history of England during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, it belongs under the present heading as well. Over the years Newton has been the subject of an extensive biographical literature.

Press, , a major contribution to the school of psychohistory and a book which, in its general avoidance of technical details of Newtonian science, is easily and pleasurably readable by any educated person. I myself am the author of another recent biography of Newton, Never at Rest Cambridge: Press, , which does attempt to deal with Newton's science as the central strand of his life. More recently still another biography of Newton, Gale E.

Free Press, , concentrates more on the setting of Newton's life and somewhat less on the details of his scientific activity. Michigan Press, , whose title indicates that method itself is not its central concern. Washington Press, , consists of a series of historical essays on method, some devoted to men of the seventeenth century. Van Gorcum, , a study related to various aspects of the Scientific Revolution, also touched on matters concerned with method.

The classic study on the social context of early science is Robert K. Fertig, ; published originally in Osiris , By the use of statistics based on biographies in the Dictionary, of National Biography , Merton demonstrates the increasing interest in science as a field of study during the seventeenth century.

The title of his work indicates his attention to the technological applications of science. What the title does not clearly suggest is Merton's focus on the connection between Puritanism and science, a hypothesis that did not originate either with Merton or with the twentieth century but has become.

It is one of the major themes of Richard F. Jones, Ancients and Moderns: During the early s it was a subject of an extended scholarly discussion in a series of articles that appeared in Past and Present and the Joumal of World History.

More recently the Puritan hypothesis, together with insistence on the practical application of science to reshape society, has furnished the argument of Charles Webster, The Great Instauration: Science, Medicine, and Reform, London: J oseph Ben-David, one of the most respected sociologists of science, devoted much of his attention to the social history of science.

Prentice-Hall, , which summarizes some of this work, concerns the seventeenth-century, though one should in caution add that this section is not the part of the book that has most pleased the critics.

Longmans, , which is part of the Problems and Perspectives in History series, assembles essays and documents relevant to the title, including a considerable amount on the social context of the Scientific Revolution.

Press, , concentrates on the issue as it pertains to one country. M ore than fifty years ago a Soviet scholar, Boris Hessen, published an article issued since as a separate volume that remains the classic application of Marxian philosophy to the history of science, The Social and Economic Roots of Newton's Principia New York: Fertig, ; published originally in the Soviet volume Science at the Crossroads , Edgar Zilsel was another early student of the economic and social sources of modern science.

Salvator Attanasio; New York: A nother question of interest has been science and the universities. Press, , argues for the continuing dominance of the traditional curriculum through the middle of the century. Science, Universities and Society in England; Cambridge: Early scientific societies offer another subject that is obviously of the greatest importance to the social history of the Scientific Revolution.

Chicago Press, , though now nearly three quarters of a century old, remains the only book on scientific societies in general. A Study of the Accademia' del Cimento Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, , the leading work on one of the early Italian academies that concerned themselves primarily with science, includes a full translation of the Accademia's Essays of Natural Experiments.

Schuman, , which is of course not confined to the seventeenth century. The same comment applies to G.


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- The Scientific Revolution Discuss the different beliefs, attitudes of Cervantes, Bunyan, Milton, Spinoza and Pascal. Discuss their skepticism/Dogmatic beliefs, their reasons behind it and your opinions. The .

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"The Scientific Revolution was a major milestone for the mental evolution of man." The new astronomy that came about during the Scientific Revolution changed many thoughts and methods in society. The Scientific Revolution was during the 16th and 17th centuries, right after the reformation.

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Essay on The Scientific Revolution Words | 6 Pages. advances. The Scientific Revolution began with a spark of inspiration that spread a wild fire of ideas through Europe and America. The new radical ideas affected everything that had been established and proven through religious views. Essay on Scientific Revolution - Nearing late 17th Century, towards the end of the Protestant Reformation movement in much of Europe, a new revolution was about to begin. Now-a-days dubbed the “Scientific Revolution” – it began primarily as a result of a combination of two major factors.

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Scientific revolution was the period marked by the emergency of the modern science. The development in science mathematics physics and astrology affected the way that the people worked and thought leading to rapid changes in the society. Scientific Revolution Essay The Scientific Revolution is a period of time from the midth century to the late 18th century in which rationalism and scientific progress made astounding leaps forward.