As a parting note: Most journals provide clear instructions to authors on the formatting and contents of different parts of the manuscript. These instructions often include details on what the sections of an abstract should contain. Authors should tailor their abstracts to the specific requirements of the journal to which they plan to submit their manuscript.
It could also be an excellent idea to model the abstract of the paper, sentence for sentence, on the abstract of an important paper on a similar subject and with similar methodology, published in the same journal for which the manuscript is slated. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Indian J Psychiatry v. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Abstracts of scientific papers are sometimes poorly written, often lack important information, and occasionally convey a biased picture. Abstract, preparing a manuscript, writing skills. Table 1 General qualities of a good abstract. Open in a separate window. Background This section should be the shortest part of the abstract and should very briefly outline the following information: What is already known about the subject, related to the paper in question.
What is not known about the subject and hence what the study intended to examine or what the paper seeks to present. Table 2 Examples of the background section of an abstract. Methods The methods section is usually the second-longest section in the abstract. Table 3 Questions regarding which information should ideally be available in the methods section of an abstract.
Table 4 Examples of the methods section of an abstract. Results The results section is the most important part of the abstract and nothing should compromise its range and quality. Table 5 Information that the results section of the abstract should ideally present. Table 6 Examples of the results section of an abstract. Thus, the conclusions may contain three elements: The primary take-home message.
Table 7 Examples of the conclusions section of an abstract. Table 8 Examples of unnecessary content in a abstract. Footnotes Source of Support: Nil Conflict of Interest: Andrade C, Mendhekar DN. Lithium, trifluperazine, and idiopathic leucopenia: Author and reviewer perspectives on how to write a good case report. A 6-week, multicentre, randomized controlled clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of placeboxetine hydrochloride in the treatment of major depressive disorder in an Indian setting.
Placeboxetine for major depressive disorder: Researcher, author, reader, and reviewer perspectives on randomized controlled trials.
Andrade C, Radhakrishnan R. A medical and scientific perspective on randomized controlled trials. Many students just beginning their science education may be unfamiliar with the concept of an abstract in a lab report; it is often not required in introductory science courses because of its level of difficulty. As one takes higher level classes the teacher will specify if he or she wants an abstract to be included in the written reports.
If it is required, it is the first part of your report, directly following the title page and proceeding the introduction. The abstract, although it comes first logistically, always should be written last. It needs to be written last because it is the essence of your report, drawing information from all of the other sections of the report.
It explains why the experiment was performed and what conclusions were drawn from the results obtained. A general guideline for an abstract has five sections or areas of focus: Do not be misled, however, from this list into thinking that the abstract is a long section.
In fact, it should be significantly shorter than all of the others. All of this information should be summarized in a clear but succinct manner if the abstract is going to be successful. An estimated average length for all of this information is only a single paragraph.
Although this may seem as though it is a short length to contain all of the required information, it is necessary because it forces you to be accurate and yet compact, two essential qualities. The best way to attempt to go about writing an abstract is to divide it into the sections mentioned above.
The first two sections are very similar and can be grouped together, but do not have to be. If you decide to address them separately, make sure that you do not repeat anything. Often a section can be mentioned in only one sentence. Remember, brevity is the key to a successful abstract. Each section is addressed below to help clarify what needs to be included and what can be omitted. The most important thing to remember when writing the abstract is to be brief and state only what is pertinent.
No extraneous information should be included. A successful abstract is compact, accurate and self-contained. It also must be clear enough so someone who is unfamiliar with your experiment could understand why you did what you did, and what the experiment indicated in the end. An additional note is that abstracts typically are written in the passive voice, but it is acceptable to use personal pronouns such as I or we.
General questions to be addressed in the abstract section. Why it was done and what is the problem being addressed? These two sections can be grouped together into one brief statement summarizing why the experiment was performed in the first place? What was the question trying to be answered? Science is an exploration for truth. It is all about curiosity and answering questions to find out why and how things work. The scientific method is a clear example of this; first state a problem or question and then try to determine the answer.
This section is the statement of the original problem. It is the reason behind why an experiment is being done. This should not include many details, rather it should be a simple statement. It can even be stated in one or two sentences at the most.
What did you do? This part of the abstract states what was done to try to answer the question proposed. This article describes how to write a good computer architecture abstract for both conference and journal papers. Writers should follow a checklist consisting of: Following this checklist should increase the chance of people taking the time to obtain and read your complete paper. Now that the use of on-line publication databases is prevalent, writing a really good abstract has become even more important than it was a decade ago.
Abstracts have always served the function of "selling" your work. But now, instead of merely convincing the reader to keep reading the rest of the attached paper, an abstract must convince the reader to leave the comfort of an office and go hunt down a copy of the article from a library or worse, obtain one after a long wait through inter-library loan.
In a business context, an "executive summary" is often the only piece of a report read by the people who matter; and it should be similar in content if not tone to a journal paper abstract.
Make sure that all the components of a good abstract are included in the next one you write. Further Reading. Michaelson, Herbert, How to Write & Publish Engineering Papers and Reports, Oryx Press, Chapter 6 discusses abstracts. Cremmins, Edward, The Art of Abstracting 2nd Edition, Info Resources Press, April This is an entire book .
First, write your paper. While the abstract will be at the beginning of your paper, it should be the last section that you write. Once you have completed the final draft of your psychology paper, use it as a guide for writing your abstract. Begin your abstract on a new page and place your running head and the page number 2 in the top right-hand corner. .
Abstracts of scientific papers are sometimes poorly written, often lack important information, and occasionally convey a biased picture. This paper provides detailed suggestions, with examples, for writing the background, methods, results, and conclusions sections of a good abstract. An abstract is a short summary of a longer report composed after the lab report is written. Abstracts are meant for others to read. It gives an overview of what happened in the lab and tries to persuade the reader to read the full-text version of the lab report. Some online databases only list abstracts. As technology.
Mar 05, · The abstract lab report has to be written simply, coherently and clearly. Before you actually proceed to writing it, read your report thoroughly with the objective of making an abstract in mind. Concentrate precisely on the elements of the abstract that you are going to write.4/4(60). University of Toronto; Writing Report Abstracts. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Writing Abstracts. Writing Tutorial Services, Center for Innovative Teaching and Learning. Indiana University; Koltay, Tibor. Abstracts and Abstracting: A Genre and Set of Skills for the Twenty-First Century. Oxford, UK: