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Writing a Bibliography

This article is a part of the guide:

❶Janson and Anthony F. Students who prefer to take notes by hand can employ a modified version of this approach, with an additional step required to transfer your handwritten and formatted references from your notebook to populate your reference page.

Step 1: How to Start

Bibliography for Books
Article in an encyclopedia with an author
Writing a Biography - Some Examples of APA and MLA Format

These details also help other students and researchers find and read the source materials. There are few limitations to the types of sources that you can include, and your list may consist of sources that range from books and academic journals to food labels and tweets. An annotated bibliography in MLA includes a concise explanation of each listed source, known as an annotation.

Depending on the assignment, this annotation may be solely descriptive, or analytical. An abstract and annotation should not be confused; they differ in both their substance as well as their placement in a paper. If you would like to learn more , this link further explores the difference between an abstract and an annotation. This resource provides additional information on how to write a bibliography with annotations in other formats.

Before you learn how to make an annotated bibliography in MLA style, you may be wondering why you need to. Sometimes instructors want you to create and include annotations in your bibliography either as part of an assignment or as an assignment unto itself. Understanding the purpose of this approach to your references list can help to ensure that you gain all of the benefits that the process provides.

As a student, this method will help you develop or hone your research skills, providing you with practice not only in locating sources but also in analyzing and evaluating them for relevance and quality. Your instructor will gain insight into your research abilities, as well, allowing them to assess your work more thoroughly. If you plan to publish your research, this comprehensive approach to detailing your sources will provide readers and other researchers with a substantial directory of resources to evaluate for their own work.

Your field of study or instructor will guide your decision on whether to format your annotated bibliography in MLA or a different style.

This example shows what the entry will look like without an annotation:. Here is the same entry with an annotation. This article offers brief and clear directions for MLA formatting of a bibliography with annotations.

It also demonstrates how writing annotations can benefit students who are tasked with researching a subject and offers instruction on the organization of entries and acceptable page titles. While the advice is tailored to respond to a question posed by an instructor, students and researchers may also benefit from the guidance that the MLA provided.

If you are creating a list of references with annotations as part of an assignment, forming the written portion of your annotation begins with identifying the format requested by your teacher or professor.

The summary of an annotated bibliography in MLA style may be written either as short, direct phrases or as complete sentences. Your instructor will advise you of which approach you are required to take. Your annotations should include either the main points from the source, as well as the topics covered, the approach used and any findings, or your critical evaluation.

A standard annotation is words or approximately one paragraph. Take care not to include any unnecessary details, as the goal is to summarize each source as succinctly as possible and, in some cases, evaluate them.

Here is an MLA annotated bibliography example which contains the citation as well as a summary for the book The Elements of Eloquence: The Elements of Eloquence: Secrets of the Perfect Turn of Phrase. The author, Mark Forsyth, examines the rhetorical devices used in the English language, analyzing the patterns and formats that create memorable quotes. He traces the history of rhetoric to the Ancient Greeks, and provides an abridged timeline, following their use and evolution through to modern day.

A single space is used after any punctuation mark. When dividing a long word or URL onto two lines, put a hyphen, slash, or period at the end of the line. Do not add a hyphen to a URL that was not originally there.

Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark. Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry. When writing a bibliography, remember that the purpose is to communicate to the reader, in a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified.

If you are unable to find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find. For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in parentheses, tables, and documentation, please go to Section 7. The Apprenticeship of a Homegrown Terrorist. The Untold Story of Asbestos: Wonders of the World: Masterpieces of Architecture from BC to the Present.

Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix. From Prehistoric to Modern Times. The Price of Loyalty: If your citation is from one volume of a multivolume work and each volume has its own title, you need cite only the actual volume you have used without reference to other volumes in the work.

An Uncommon Journey of Spirit. Calvesi, Maurizio, and Lorenzo Canova, eds. Cohen, Andrew, and J. Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. Mowat and Paul Werstine. Inside the Special Forces. The Power of Focus for College Students. Speier, and Jennifer R. A History of the Modern World: Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and Lawrence Lindner. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis. A History in Words and Pictures. Canadian Facts and Dates.

Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of English: U of Pittsburgh P, True Stories of Trouble and Survival. The Joy in Loving: Jaya Chaliha and Edward Le Joly. With Scott to the Pole: Photographs of Herbert Ponting. Rita and Robert Kimber. If the encyclopedia is well known and articles are arranged alphabetically, it is not necessary to indicate the volume and page numbers. If the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of article, title of encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher and year of publication.

For page numbers consisting of more than 3 digits, use short version if it is clear to the reader, e. Note also that there is no period after the month. If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e. May, June, and July, the months are not abbreviated. If the publication date is July 18, , citation will be 18 July Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of publication, add the city of publication between square brackets, e.

Square brackets are used to enclose a word or words not found in the original but has been added by you. The above citation shows: If the article is accessed online, add Access date and URL at the end. Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and Ray Jayawardhana. Thomas, Cathy Booth, and Tim Padgett. Wolanski, Eric, et al. Suggested citation example from SIRS: Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. Example in MLA style: Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in the source cited.

Your Canadian Financial Planning Software. May use short forms: Edition, Editor, or Edited , Comp. Views from Within , comp. Master of Dreams , by Diane Waldman.

Toronto-Central West Edition , Companies Even Get a Bonjour? When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the abbreviation Def. Short forms may be used, e. You may add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and the distributor. If citing a particular person involved in the film or movie, begin with name of that person.

Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Based on book by Roald Dahl. Paula Weinstein, Chris Bender, and J. Jennifer Lopez and Jane Fonda. Based on Nurse Matilda Books Writ. Twentieth Century Fox and Paramount, Williams, and Adam Schroeder.

Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt. Cite government document in the following order if no author is stated: Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development.

National Council on Disability. There are many more subtle variations when writing a bibliography and the whole process of creating a bibliography can be a minefield. The above sources contain plenty of information about the correct format, but remember to check with your supervisor.

The supervisor also might help writing a reference if you have trouble with a particularly difficult citation. Check out our quiz-page with tests about:. Martyn Shuttleworth Jan 6, Retrieved Sep 13, from Explorable. The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4. You can use it freely with some kind of link , and we're also okay with people reprinting in publications like books, blogs, newsletters, course-material, papers, wikipedia and presentations with clear attribution.

Learn how to construct, style and format an Academic paper and take your skills to the next level. Don't have time for it all now? No problem, save it as a course and come back to it later. Share this page on your website: This article is a part of the guide: Select from one of the other courses available: Don't miss these related articles:.

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How to Write a Bibliography for a Research Paper Writing a bibliography is easy by following the format outlined in this article. Learn how to properly cite different resources in the bibliography of a research paper, and how to format those citations, for books, encyclopedias, films, websites, and people.

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A bibliography is a listing of the books, magazines, and Internet sources that you use in designing, carrying out, and understanding your science fair project. But, you develop a bibliography only after first preparing a background research plan — a road map of the research questions you need to answer.

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You should compile a bibliography when writing an essay, article, or research paper that relies heavily on source material. A bibliography is an alphabetized list of sources that have been used to compile data, typically in an article, essay, or research paper. In your Bibliography, Works Cited, or References page, you must include all of the above MLA parenthetical citation. When writing a bibliography, remember that the purpose is to communicate to the reader, in a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified.

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· A bibliography is as a works cited or reference list. It is a list of the sources that were used It is a list of the sources that were used in the research paper. Research paper writing guide including step-by-step instruction on picking a topic, effective research, writing, proofreading, and compiling the bibliography.