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Environmental determinism

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❶The Works of Julian Steward. Cultural ecology , meanwhile, is the study of how people use culture to adapt to their environment.

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Trends of 'possibilism'
Cultural Geography
Environmental Determinism Defined

The controversy between geographical possibilism and determinism might be considered as one of at least three dominant epistemologic controversies of contemporary geography. The other two controversies are 1 the "debate between neopositivists and neokantians about the "exceptionalism" or the specificity of geography as a science the contention between Mackinder and Kropotkin about what is - or should be - geography. Is it possibile to sense aura? Very few humans are probably born with this power and there is a special Pokemon that can do this also it is called Lucario.

Determiners are things, or people, that makes decisions forsomething or someone else. They are sure to be followed by a noun. What are some examples of environmental determinism? The Nile River influenced the entire Ancient Egyptian culture. Itgave them food, transportation, fertile soil, and Papyrus. What is an example of possibilism? Within possibilism unicorns are an example of possibilia: Unicorns are contingently nonactual; they fail in fact to be actual, but nonetheless could have been actual.

What is enviromental possibilism? The theory that humans choose their own traits, and culture, not the surrounding environment. I love to fish, but I live miles away from a large enough body of water to live in. Is Eye color is determined by environmental factors? What is the definition of possibilism?

Meaning given whatever environmental conditions we are able to overcome them through knowledge, skills technology and money. What is the definition of environmental determinism? What is the multiplication formula used to determine the level of human impact on an environmental process?

The multiplication formula used to determine the level of humanimpact on an environmental process is given by I equals P X A X T,where P stands for population, A is affluence, and T is technology. This equation was introduced in the s by Paul Ehrlich and JohnHolden. What are the possibillities of being in WWE?

What are all of the pokemons possibile moves? What can a determination do? Determination is one the greatest assets we can possess. Determination is the tool we use to overcome temporary failure to prevent failure from becoming permanent. Determination is the tool we use to give us the will to win. Determination is the tool we use to help us win in spite of our limitations.

Determination is the tool we use to dig ourselves out of a hole. Determination is the tool we use to improve our relationships. Determination is the tool we use to reach our goals. Determination is the tool we use to succeed. Determination can bring out the best in us. Determination is the tool we use to produce patience. Determination is the tool we use to feed our faith and starve our doubts to death.

And these are just a few examples what a determination can do. There are more things that have determination but this is a very good example to what a Determination is.

Environmental resistance will determine how many humans the Earth can support? Environmental resistance refers to the amount of resistance apopulation is given in it's expansion. As the human populationgrows and requires more natural resources environmental resistancewill increase. Why might people be interested in determining the environmental conditions favouring mold?

It is important to determine environmental conditions that cancause mold. This fungi can cause health problems in individualssuch as wheezing, eye irritation, and chronic lung conditions. How could a researcher determine if alcoholism is genetically determined or environmentally determined? Compare the addiction rates of people in the same environemt, e. How do you analyze environmental determinism and possibilitism?

Let's start with Euclidean geometry as a major influence for environmental determinism. From an airplane, one looks down on geometric farms and cityscapes and suburban environments the world over now, wherever man dwells. I have read that Euclid's "Elements" is the second bestselling book in history, behind the Bible. I do not mean to assume here that Euclid is the only environmental determinant, as surely he did not comprehend sea travel and trigonometric navigation, nor the travels of the Hawaiians and other Polynesians; however, his straight lines, roots, proportions, study of angles and triangles and other geometric figures, as well as his logical method of proof which is deterministic in and of itself, even in the case of reductio ad absurdum proofs, demonstrates a ubiquity that presaged him perhaps but which followed upon his collecting geometric work into a standard academic course of study, of which the rudiments are today taught in grammar school still.

On the other hand, we might take for "possibilitism" the irrational, erroneous, haphazard, random, best-suited, niche-style d designs of people who are subject to rationalizing and delusion, and here I include schizophrenics and their like, of which I am one, so that I speak from experience.

For example, I might wish for lunch and kill a bird on a deserted island instead of letting that bird mate and populate, which would be more rational were I to know all the information in the situation perhaps, but my survivalist ego tells me I am more important than the holistic pattern of life in its entirety, and my senses take in only slivers of the entire electromagnetic spectrum over relatively short distances, so I am forced to rationalize my behaviors constantly and delude myself into thinking that what is best for me is best, period.

That is the limited view of "possibilitism", of course. A more holistic view would consider the planet as a whole and what is sustainable and best in terms of biodiversity in terms of providing the best chances of survival for the greatest number of species, as seems to be Nature's goal, as I attempt to subjectively judge her. Therefore, let us start again, this time with a more universal view: How much of this is neutrons is currently unanswered but only hydrogen in its natural state is free of neutrons, and since there is a lot of hydrogen plasma and gas in stars, let's guesstimate a lowball figure and say that neutrons make up the rest of the periodic table of element's atomic nuclei with protons, add in electrons, grant photons a large share and say that all other particles account for the rest of "matter.

And it provides a place for spirit to abide let's also suppose, with the majority opinion of humanity.

From this new viewpoint, we can see that property rights are a good thing, desirable, and logical. However, animals and vegetables and minerals, etc. Were we to assign properly to each species of animate and inanimate matter its destiny of change and involvement with other matter somehow with property rights along the "lifepath" or term the said entity was extant, we might approach something "fair.

But the universe apparently cannot coexist with the total memory of itself simultaneously, so my wish is apparently wishful thinking, and that is why I am not God, "apparently. But energy, of the entire electromagnetic spectrum, IS what we use for memory's conveyance, and so we may safely assume that energy is not only conducive to memory, and contains it via patterning and signal-structures, but energy may have boundless intelligence.

We do not know where Human Mind comes from, and it is only our egos that tell us that humans invented Mind, rather than the Universe inventing Universal Mind first. Or at least niches of it? I have experienced conversing mentally with the sun and having it burn my toe through my shoe and the next day Florida, the "toe" of the US, was in flames.

You may call that coincidence, but I was of the mind of a boddhisattva at the time, or buddha-consciousness, and felt very much connected to the entire planet. It is a FACT that I told my daughter to be cautious of a great quake "that would move New Zealand 6 feet north" and that is exactly what happened with the great tsunami off Cambodia that killed , people.

I am not lying. I am not delusiional. I am not on drugs. The Afro-Arab writer al-Jahiz argued that the skin color of people and livestock were determined by the water, soil, and heat of their environments. He compared the color of black basalt in the northern Najd to the skin color of the peoples living there to support his theory. Ibn Khaldun , the Arab sociologist and polymath , similarly linked skin color to environmental factors. In his Muqaddimah , he wrote that black skin was due to the hot climate of sub-Saharan Africa and not due to African lineage.

He thereby challenged Hamitic theories of race that held that the sons of Ham son of Noah were cursed with black skin. Ibn Khaldun believed that the physical environment influenced non-physical factors in addition to skin color. He argued that soil, climate, and food determined whether people were nomadic or sedentary , and what customs and ceremonies they held.

His writings may have influenced the later writings of Montesquieu during the 18th century through the traveller Jean Chardin , who travelled to Persia and described theories resembling those of Ibn Khaldun.

Environmental determinism has been widely criticized as a tool to legitimize colonialism , racism , and imperialism in Africa , North America , South America , and Asia. Many writers, including Thomas Jefferson , supported and legitimized African colonization by arguing that tropical climates made peoples uncivilized.

Jefferson argued that tropical climates encouraged laziness, relaxed attitudes, promiscuity and generally degenerative societies, while the frequent variability in the weather of the middle and northern latitudes led to stronger work ethics and civilized societies. Defects of character supposedly generated by tropical climates were believed to be inheritable under the Lamarckian theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics , a discredited precursor to the Darwinian theory of natural selection.

Lamarckianism suggested that those physiological changes may be passed directly to offspring, without the need for offspring to develop the trait in the same manner. Acclimatization societies directly supported colonial enterprises and enjoyed their benefits. The writings of Lamarck provided theoretical backing for the acclimatization doctrines.

Ellen Churchill Semple , a prominent environmental determinism scholar, applied her theories in a case study which focused on the Philippines , where she mapped civilization and wildness onto the topography of the islands. Scholars thereby imposed racial stereotypes on whole societies.

The role of environmental determinism in rationalizing and legitimizing racism , ethnocentrism and economic inequality has consequently drawn strong criticism. Many modern scientists have also critiqued classical environmental determinism as unscientific. Carl Sauer criticized the premature generalizations resulting from bias in environmentalism in He argued that to define geography as the study of environmental influences is to assume in advance that such influences do operate, and that science cannot be based upon or committed to preconceptions.

David Landes similarly condemns of what he terms the unscientific moral geography of Ellsworth Huntington. He argues that Huntington undermined geography as a science by attributing all human activity to physical influences so that he might classify civilizations hierarchically — favoring those civilizations he considered best. Environmental determinism was revived in the late-twentieth century as neo-environmental determinism. The new term coined by the social scientist and critic Andrew Sluyter.

Neo-environmental determinism examines how the physical environment predisposes societies and states towards particular trajectories of economic and political development. It explores how geographic and ecological forces influence state-building , economic development , and institutions.

It also addresses fears surrounding the effects of modern climate change. Neo-environmental determinism scholars debate how much the physical environment shapes economic and political institutions. Economic historians Stanley Engerman and Kenneth Sokoloff argue that factor endowments greatly affected "institutional" development in the Americas, by which they mean the tendency to more free democratic, free market or unfree dictatorial, economically restrictive regimes.

Robinson underscore that the geographic factors most influenced institutional development during early state formation and colonialism. They argue that geographic differences cannot explain economic growth disparities after A.

Economists Jeffrey Sachs and John Luke Gallup have examined the direct impacts of geographic and climatic factors on economic development, especially the role of geography on the cost of trade and access to markets, the disease environment, and agricultural productivity. The contemporary global warming crisis has also impacted environmental determinism scholarship.

Jared Diamond draws similarities between the changing climate conditions that brought down the Easter Island civilization and global warming in his book Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. A scientist at the Lamont—Doherty Earth Observatory at Columbia University , writes that societal collapse due to climate change is possible today. In the Pulitzer Prize winning Guns, Germs, and Steel , author Jared Diamond points to geography as the answer to why certain states were able to grow and develop faster and stronger than others.

His theory cited the natural environment and raw materials a civilization was blessed with as factors for success, instead of popular century old claims of racial and cultural superiority.

Diamond says that these natural endowments began with the dawn of man, and favored Eurasian civilizations due to their location along similar latitudes, suitable farming climate, and early animal domestication.

Diamond argues that early states located along the same latitude lines were uniquely suited to take advantage of similar climates, making it easier for crops, livestock, and farming techniques to spread. Crops such as wheat and barley were simple to grow and easy to harvest, and regions suitable for their cultivation saw high population densities and the growth of early cities. The ability to domesticate herd animals, which had no natural fear of humans, high birth rates, and an innate hierarchy, gave some civilizations the advantages of free labor, fertilizers, and war animals.

The east-west orientation of Eurasia allowed for knowledge capital to spread quickly, and writing systems to keep track of advanced farming techniques gave people the ability to store and build upon a knowledge base across generations. Craftsmanship flourished as a surplus of food from farming allowed some groups the freedom to explore and create, which lead to the development of metallurgy and advances in technology.

While the advantageous geography helped to develop early societies, the close proximity in which humans and their animals lived led to the spread of disease across Eurasia.

Over several centuries, rampant disease decimated populations, but ultimately led to disease resistant communities. Diamond suggests that these chains of causation led to European and Asian civilizations holding a dominant place in the world today. Diamond uses the Spanish conquistadors' conquering of the Americas as a case study for his theory. He argues that the Europeans took advantage of their environment to build large and complex states complete with advanced technology and weapons.

The Incans and other native groups were not as blessed, suffering from a north—south orientation that prevented the flow of goods and knowledge across the continent. The Americas also lacked the animals, metals, and complex writing systems of Eurasia which prevented them from achieving the military or biological protections needed to fight off the European threat. In his book States and Power in Africa , political scientist Jeffrey Herbst argues that environmental conditions help explain why, in contrast to other parts of the world such as Europe, many pre-colonial societies in Africa did not develop into dense, settled, hierarchical societies with strong state control that competed with neighboring states for people and territory.

Herbst argues that the European state-building experience was highly idiosyncratic because it occurred under systemic geographic pressures that favored wars of conquest — namely, passable terrain , land scarcity , and high-population densities. European states consequently developed strong institutions and capital-periphery linkages. By contrast, geographic and climatic factors in pre-colonial Africa made establishing absolute control over particular pieces of land prohibitively costly.

Some early African empires, like the Ashanti Empire , successfully projected power over large distances by building roads.

The largest pre-colonial polities arose in the Sudanian Savanna belt of West Africa because the horses and camels could transport armies over the terrain. In other areas, no centralized political organizations existed above the village level. African states did not develop more responsive institutions under colonial rule or post-independence. Yes, environmental problems do constrain human societies, but the societies' responses also make a difference.

The study of the interactions between humans and their surroundings, and the observed effect of such interactions is called human geography. Studies related to this field attempt to establish the human or natural factors underlying the environmental changes occurring at that site. It also tries to understand the sociocultural evolution of humans based on the stimuli provided by their physical living conditions.

Till , philosophers believed that human civilizations form and proliferate in certain parts of the world due to the direct influence of the natural physical environment found in those places. They put forth these beliefs in the form of theories which claimed that the environment had deterministic effects on the nature of human society and culture. The natural environment posed as a limiting factor for the development and progress of people inhabiting the particular area environmental determinism.

This provided a logical reasoning for diversity that was observed among the various civilizations and settlements of humans across the globe. These theories reinforced the idea that human-environment interactions were solely driven by the physical conditions, and that they were unidirectional.

However, as time elapsed, scholars and scientists began to question the validity of these theories, as they did not account for the impact of humans on the environment. They also did not take into account the essential factor of human ingenuity and advancement in technology.

Due to the availability of advanced technology, humans could have a larger impact on the environment and easily adapt themselves, if not overcome, to the physical conditions.

This contradicted the previous claim of the deterministic nature of the environment and in its stead proposed that while the environment did pose a few limiting factors to the prosperity of the inhabiting people, the people or society was also capable of having an impact on the surrounding and molding it as per their needs environmental possibilism.

After , both these sets of theories were revised and improved upon, as they proved inadequate to explain all the aspects related to human-environment interactions. A comprehensive comparison of these two concepts is given below.

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In answering any question that asks one to compare and contrast, it helps to define each term. First, my understanding of environmental determinism is the idea that physical environment, climate and geography shape human thought, actions, and beha.

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Possibilism and Environmental Determinism, both completely different in theory, and yet so very linked in purpose. Environmental Determinism is the idea that the environment shapes its inhabitants, and will --or will not-- .

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Environmental possibilism and determinism are theories, put forth in order to comprehend and understand the role played by the physical environmental conditions in the emergence and progress of any human culture or society in a particular location. ScienceStruck explores and lists out the differences between these two concepts. By the s, environmental determinism was almost entirely replaced in geography by environmental possibilism, effectively ending its prominence as the central theory in the discipline. Regardless of its decline, however, environmental determinism was an important component of geographic history as it initially represented an attempt by .

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By the advent of , the theory of environmental determinism was discarded and replaced by the theory of environmental possibilism, which is contradictory to its predecessor because it claims that while the environment may be a limiting factor for the progress of a cultural society, there exists a possibility to overcome this limitation via. "Environmental possibilism and determinism are theories, put forth in order to comprehend and understand the role played by the physical environmental conditions in the emergence and progress of any human culture or society in a particular location."Source: canlimacizlemek.tks article outlines differences between environmental determinism and environmental possibilism.