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❶These bundles are surrounded by a moderator such as water, graphite or heavy water.

Nuclear Energy Research Paper

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This is a contrast to other alternative energies which depend on the activity of the weather. Low Operating cost Although nuclear power reactors are expensive to build, they are relatively cheap to operate. Fuel is inexpensive and a plant can be operated by small number of people, approximately 10 people.

Concentration The nuclear energy is by far the most concentrated form of energy, so it can be produced in large quantities over short periods of time. Cheap Nuclear energy produces electricity at a competitive price and is generally comparable in output to coal plants. Location A nuclear plant is not dependant on local sources like oil and coal and can be set up in any part of the globe. It also does not require a lot of space and so can be placed in already developed areas and the power does not have to be transferred over long distances.

Nuclear Weapons Threat It has potential nuclear proliferation issues. Some reactors produce plutonium which can be used to make nuclear weapons.

Nuclear weapons are a major threat to the world as they can cause a large-scale devastation. High Capital Intensive Nuclear Plants require a high level of technology and a major initial capital investment. Its abandonment cost is also very high. These bundles are surrounded by a moderator such as water, graphite or heavy water. The moderator slows down the emitted neutrons by reducing their energy as they collide with the nuclei of the moderator. Control rods are placed in the bundles which control the rate of the nuclear reaction.

These can also be used to shut down the reactor completely when something goes wrong. These control rods are materials which absorb neutrons, such as Cadmium and Boron. They work by reducing the number of neutrons in the reactor and therefore slowing down the reaction and consequently reducing the heat. To reduce heat, the rods are put further into the bundles where they absorb more neutrons. To raise the heat the opposite is done, and the heat level rises.

As the atoms are split the energy is released as heat. This is used to heat water and turns it into steam. The steam drives a steam turbine, which spins a generator to produce electricity. This is what happens in a basic reactor, others include the use of intermediate heat exchangers or gaseous coolant fluid.

The set up of a nuclear power plant is basically the same as that of a coal power plant. The main difference is how the water is heated to produce steam, from then on the turbines and generator work in the same way for both plants.

In solid fuel, particles can only move a very short distance. Therefore the kinetic energy is converted into heat as the particles are hitting against each other. The energy gained by splitting an atom comes from the fact that the products formed from the fission, together with the neutrons weigh less than the original product.

The decay of a single Uranium atom releases on average million electron volts, the equivalent to 3. In contrast, 4 electron volts are released per molecule of carbon dioxide in the combustion of fossil fuels.

So it can be seen that this is a very compact source of energy. The reason for the large amount of energy released is because the forces involved in nuclear reactions are much greater than those involved in chemical reactions. Uranium is a very dense metal at The protons and neutrons are held very tightly together and the electrons orbiting the nucleus are comparatively far away, so this shows how the bonds involved are so much stronger.

Nuclear fission is a very efficient source of energy because of the low amounts of waste products. Combustion of fossil fuels produces waste products such as ash and toxic fumes. This reduces the amount of usable energy produced by reaction, and therefore lowers its efficiency. Uranium is found in most rocks, at 0. The Uranium found in the earths crust contains Another possible source to extract Uranium from is seawater, the key is to find it in quantities that is economical for extraction.

The reactor is contained within a concrete liner, which shields radiation. Since the Chernobyl incident, the reactor is now usually contained within a secondary containment structure made of steel. This prevents the leakage of radioactive steam in the event of an accident.

On the other hand nuclear energy is free of all those pollutants. On the long run, imagine how many lives would be saved by just replacing fossil fuels with nuclear energy. Opponents of nuclear energy have been promoting nuclear energy for years to be a death tool; in fact, this claim has little truth to it. One is much more susceptible to death from air pollution, than of the radiation emitted by the nuclear plants.

Air pollution causes deaths worldwide every year Morris, When, the death toll for the Chernobyl accident was cancer deaths over 50 years, which means, deaths per year. Which confirms the claim that air pollution is much more dangerous than nuclear energy. Nevertheless, the radiation is still the major concern of those in opposition of nuclear energy because it has been publicized that nuclear energy produces excessive amounts of radiation causing three possible health effects: As to the genetic mutations, it has been shown that excessive doses of radiation are not associated in any way with the genetic mutations.

This needs a minimum radiation exposure of , millirems, below that no radiation sickness occurred in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Nowadays, at the fence line of a nuclear power plant, by law, radiation may not exceed 10 millirems, that is 10, times less than the level at which radiation sickness occurs, it is also a tenth of the amount of radiation one could get from a medical x-ray yearly.

Actually no one lives this close to a nuclear power plant, therefore, people would get less than 0. The last argued health effect is cancer.

It has been proven that no cases of cancer due to radiation occurred at less than , millirems exposure, which is a huge dose. Back to the Hiroshima and Nagasaki, cases of cancer occurred in a carefully studied group of 80, Japanese people who were exposed to over , millirems of radiation, that is 0. Thus if we were to draw a conclusion from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki, it will be that 0. And since the major concern is eliminated, then why not use what is considered an efficient power source that would supply us with sufficient energy?

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This essay discusses some of the major advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy.”. Introduction. Nuclear energy represents only 15% of the electricity produced worldwide. Though in France, 80% of its electricity production is from nuclear energy and more than one .

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Free Essay: Nuclear energy Nuclear Power and its uses is a growing discussion in today’s era of technology. Australia is one of the developed countries where.

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The solution to long term energy source is the nuclear powered batteries which have a life span of few decades and can pack in energy densities thousands of time greater than conventional battery sources. [tags: Nuclear Energy] Research Papers words ( pages) Essay on Nuclear power - One of the most important problems the world is facing today is limited supply of energy resources. It is generally agreed that oil, coal and gas will come to end after some time; therefore it is essential to find a replacement for fossil fuels before they.

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Ever since humanity has existed, there has been an increasing demand for energy as a means of survival, from its usage for cooking and warmth, all the way to electricity generation for production and agricultural activities. Today, over 80% of energy consumption comes from fossil fuels, which include coal, oil and natural gas (Irvine, ). Nuclear Energy and Hydroelectric Energy: Pros and Cons Essay - Nuclear Energy Nuclear reactors are the future of energy production. Nuclear energy can produce over zeta joules of power; which is equal to about times the current energy consumption of the world.