Systematic philosophy attempts to provide a framework in reason that can explain all questions and problems related to human life. In many ways, any attempts to formulate a philosophical method that provides the ultimate constituents of reality , a metaphysics , can be considered systematic philosophy.
In modern philosophy the reaction to systematic philosophy began with Kierkegaard and continued in various forms through analytic philosophy , existentialism , hermeneutics , and deconstructionism.
Some common features of the methods that philosophers follow and discuss when discussing philosophical method include:. Plato said that "philosophy begins in wonder ",  a view which is echoed by Aristotle: The initial impulse to philosophize may arise from suspicion , for example that we do not fully understand, and have not fully justified, even our most basic beliefs about the world.
Another element of philosophical method is to formulate questions to be answered or problems to be solved. The working assumption is that the more clearly the question or problem is stated, the easier it is to identify critical issues. A relatively small number of major philosophers prefer not to be quick, but to spend more time trying to get extremely clear on what the problem is all about. Another approach is to enunciate a theory , or to offer a definition or analysis , which constitutes an attempt to solve a philosophical problem.
Sometimes a philosophical theory by itself can be stated quite briefly. All the supporting philosophical text is offered by way of hedging , explanation, and argument. Not all proposed solutions to philosophical problems consist of definitions or generalizations. Sometimes, what is called for, is a certain sort of explanation — not a causal explanation, but an explanation for example of how two different views, which seem to be contrary to one another, can be held at the same time, consistently.
One can call this a philosophical explanation. An argument is a set of statements, one of which the conclusion , it is said or implied, follows from the others the premises. One might think of arguments as bundles of reasons — often not just a list, but logically interconnected statements — followed by the claim they are reasons for. The reasons are the premises, the claim they support is the conclusion; together they make an argument. Philosophical arguments and justifications are another important part of philosophical method.
It is rare to find a philosopher, particularly in the Western philosophical tradition, who lacks many arguments. Philosophers are, or at least are expected to be, very good at giving arguments. They constantly demand and offer arguments for different claims they make.
Interpretivism is a branch epistemology which is focused to the assessment the differences between humans as social actors. The issue of difference is emphasized on the difference between conducting research among people rather than objects such as medicines and computer. In this philosophy, interpretation of social roles has been presented with respect of own set of meaning.
In addition, we interpret the social roles of others in accordance with our own set of meanings. The interpretation regarding employee turnover of HR manager and trade union leader are completely different as they both belong to different social roles.
Axiology is a branch of philosophy which is concerned about judgments, aesthetics, and ethics. The process of social enquiry is involved in this approach.
However, this method creates impact in social sciences research. For example, a study was conducted among customers of bank to determine their experiences of using credit card in terms of convenience, security, privacy and phone banking.
The results of the study revealed that there was lack of communication strategies and absence of awareness level within the consumers, and that most of the consumers are not interested in this product. However, the bank authorities did now allow researcher to publish the findings. But the researcher and the respective organization must consider the ethical perspective of this issue for the welfare of the consumers.
Positivism Interpretivism The observer interacts with subject being showed. Problems as a whole are clearly understood if the totality of the situation is projected. So we can say that the qualitative research is based on interpretivism and quantitative research is based on positivism. Positivists prefer to collect data about an observable reality and search for regularities and causal relationships in your data to create law-like generalizations whereas interpretivists intend to grasp the subjective meaning of social action in order to conduct research methodology.
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Click here to know more about our vacancies. For assistance call IND projectguru. More Industrial overview of India. There are different types of research philosophy, which are described below: Ontology Ontology is based on the nature of reality.
Hence before selecting the appropriate research philosophy it is important to know about various types of philosophies in research Saunders et al. These assumptions will determine research strategy and the methods of that strategy. This may include quality maintenance like machines, computers, raw materials and such others. For example, interpreting the psychological strategies undertaken by suppliers and demands of consumers.
Naturalistic use the methods like, interview ,observation and analysis of existing texts. A qualitative approach is applied interacting with individuals in order to collaboratively construct a meaningful reality Rowlands, It believes that objects have an independent existence from human mind. This element is more related to positivism. However, the view contrasts between direct realis t and critical realist.
Precisely critical realists believe in virtual reality. While in case of critical realism, what the research has perceived observing the manufacturing process is only a part of the greater quality. It varies from products to products and over time too. Similarly direct realist emphasises on changing the social world within which participants live. Hence, use action research and participant observation.
This social phenomenon is constantly getting revised through continuous social interaction. Subjectivists believe that customers as social actors interpret a situation based on their perception of the world and through their interaction with the environment. Qualitative methodology, similar to interpretivism is applicable. For example, the process of supply chain management social entity remains unchanged reality despite the change or replacement of all its actors including manufacturers, producers, logistics providers, suppliers and consumers social actors.
Similarly an organisation and its internal functioning social entity remain unchanged reality despite the change in its workforce social actors. Precisely a pragmatist avoid going into argument on concepts of truth and reality.
Rather they focus on studying the issues of interest and value and use different ways to bring out positive consequences. When a researcher wants to observe how quality of a product and various advertising strategies leads to increased satisfaction of the end use in a supply chain management process.
Discussion of research philosophy in your dissertation should include the following: You need to specify the research philosophy of your study. Your research philosophy can be pragmatism, positivism, realism or interpretivism as discussed below. The reasons behind .
According to pragmatism research philosophy, research question is the most important determinant of the research philosophy. Pragmatics can combine both, positivist and interpretivism positions within the scope of a single research according to the nature of the research question.
Philosophical method (or philosophical methodology) is the study of how to do philosophy. A common view among philosophers is that philosophy is distinguished by the ways that philosophers follow in addressing philosophical questions. philosophy of research methodology (social sciences) kntayya mariappan fksw, ums postgraduate methodology course centre for postgraduate studies 26 february
3- 1 Chapter Three: Research Methodology Introduction The way in which research is conducted may be conceived of in terms of the research philosophy subscribed to, the research strategy employed and so the. Project Planner. Find all you need to know to plan your research project. This section deals with the philosophy of research and research methodology. Methodology underpins all the work you do. These are important concepts which need to be understood, but they’re one of the areas people find most challenging, so don’t worry if they don.