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❶Magnetic reversal The flipping of polarity of the earth's magnetic field as the north magnetic pole and the south magnetic pole exchange positions. Heat is measured by the temperature-effect it produces in any material body.

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PHYSICS Defined for English Language Learners

Thus, physics aims to both connect the things observable to humans to root causes , and then connect these causes together. For example, the ancient Chinese observed that certain rocks lodestone and magnetite were attracted to one another by an invisible force. This effect was later called magnetism , which was first rigorously studied in the 17th century.

But even before the Chinese discovered magnetism, the ancient Greeks knew of other objects such as amber , that when rubbed with fur would cause a similar invisible attraction between the two. Thus, physics had come to understand two observations of nature in terms of some root cause electricity and magnetism. However, further work in the 19th century revealed that these two forces were just two different aspects of one force— electromagnetism.

This process of "unifying" forces continues today, and electromagnetism and the weak nuclear force are now considered to be two aspects of the electroweak interaction. Physics hopes to find an ultimate reason Theory of Everything for why nature is as it is see section Current research below for more information.

Contemporary research in physics can be broadly divided into nuclear and particle physics ; condensed matter physics ; atomic, molecular, and optical physics ; astrophysics ; and applied physics. Some physics departments also support physics education research and physics outreach. Since the 20th century, the individual fields of physics have become increasingly specialised , and today most physicists work in a single field for their entire careers.

The major fields of physics, along with their subfields and the theories and concepts they employ, are shown in the following table. Particle physics is the study of the elementary constituents of matter and energy and the interactions between them. The field is also called "high-energy physics" because many elementary particles do not occur naturally but are created only during high-energy collisions of other particles.

Currently, the interactions of elementary particles and fields are described by the Standard Model. Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies the constituents and interactions of atomic nuclei.

The most commonly known applications of nuclear physics are nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons technology, but the research has provided application in many fields, including those in nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance imaging , ion implantation in materials engineering , and radiocarbon dating in geology and archaeology.

Atomic , molecular , and optical physics AMO is the study of matter —matter and light —matter interactions on the scale of single atoms and molecules. The three areas are grouped together because of their interrelationships, the similarity of methods used, and the commonality of their relevant energy scales.

All three areas include both classical , semi-classical and quantum treatments; they can treat their subject from a microscopic view in contrast to a macroscopic view.

Atomic physics studies the electron shells of atoms. Current research focuses on activities in quantum control, cooling and trapping of atoms and ions, [70] [71] [72] low-temperature collision dynamics and the effects of electron correlation on structure and dynamics. Atomic physics is influenced by the nucleus see, e.

Molecular physics focuses on multi-atomic structures and their internal and external interactions with matter and light. Optical physics is distinct from optics in that it tends to focus not on the control of classical light fields by macroscopic objects but on the fundamental properties of optical fields and their interactions with matter in the microscopic realm.

Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic physical properties of matter. The most familiar examples of condensed phases are solids and liquids , which arise from the bonding by way of the electromagnetic force between atoms. Condensed matter physics is the largest field of contemporary physics.

Historically, condensed matter physics grew out of solid-state physics , which is now considered one of its main subfields. Astrophysics and astronomy are the application of the theories and methods of physics to the study of stellar structure , stellar evolution , the origin of the Solar System, and related problems of cosmology.

Because astrophysics is a broad subject, astrophysicists typically apply many disciplines of physics, including mechanics, electromagnetism, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, relativity, nuclear and particle physics, and atomic and molecular physics.

The discovery by Karl Jansky in that radio signals were emitted by celestial bodies initiated the science of radio astronomy. Most recently, the frontiers of astronomy have been expanded by space exploration. Perturbations and interference from the earth's atmosphere make space-based observations necessary for infrared , ultraviolet , gamma-ray , and X-ray astronomy. Physical cosmology is the study of the formation and evolution of the universe on its largest scales.

Albert Einstein's theory of relativity plays a central role in all modern cosmological theories. In the early 20th century, Hubble 's discovery that the universe is expanding, as shown by the Hubble diagram , prompted rival explanations known as the steady state universe and the Big Bang.

The Big Bang was confirmed by the success of Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the discovery of the cosmic microwave background in The Big Bang model rests on two theoretical pillars: Albert Einstein's general relativity and the cosmological principle. Numerous possibilities and discoveries are anticipated to emerge from new data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope over the upcoming decade and vastly revise or clarify existing models of the universe.

IBEX is already yielding new astrophysical discoveries: In condensed matter physics, an important unsolved theoretical problem is that of high-temperature superconductivity. In particle physics, the first pieces of experimental evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model have begun to appear. Foremost among these are indications that neutrinos have non-zero mass. These experimental results appear to have solved the long-standing solar neutrino problem , and the physics of massive neutrinos remains an area of active theoretical and experimental research.

The Large Hadron Collider has already found the Higgs Boson , but future research aims to prove or disprove the supersymmetry , which extends the Standard Model of particle physics. Research on the nature of the major mysteries of dark matter and dark energy is also currently ongoing. Theoretical attempts to unify quantum mechanics and general relativity into a single theory of quantum gravity , a program ongoing for over half a century, have not yet been decisively resolved.

The current leading candidates are M-theory , superstring theory and loop quantum gravity. Many astronomical and cosmological phenomena have yet to be satisfactorily explained, including the origin of ultra-high energy cosmic rays , the baryon asymmetry , the acceleration of the universe and the anomalous rotation rates of galaxies. Although much progress has been made in high-energy, quantum , and astronomical physics, many everyday phenomena involving complexity , [90] chaos , [91] or turbulence [92] are still poorly understood.

Complex problems that seem like they could be solved by a clever application of dynamics and mechanics remain unsolved; examples include the formation of sandpiles, nodes in trickling water , the shape of water droplets , mechanisms of surface tension catastrophes , and self-sorting in shaken heterogeneous collections.

These complex phenomena have received growing attention since the s for several reasons, including the availability of modern mathematical methods and computers , which enabled complex systems to be modeled in new ways. Complex physics has become part of increasingly interdisciplinary research, as exemplified by the study of turbulence in aerodynamics and the observation of pattern formation in biological systems.

I am an old man now, and when I die and go to heaven there are two matters on which I hope for enlightenment. One is quantum electrodynamics, and the other is the turbulent motion of fluids. And about the former I am rather optimistic. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the field of science. For other uses, see Physics disambiguation. Not to be confused with Physical science. European science in the Middle Ages. Physics in the medieval Islamic world. History of special relativity and History of quantum mechanics.

Branches of physics and Outline of physics. Theoretical physics and Experimental physics. Particle physics and Nuclear physics. Atomic, molecular, and optical physics. Astrophysics and Physical cosmology. List of unsolved problems in physics. Physics portal Cosmology portal. General Glossary of classical physics Glossary of physics Index of physics articles List of elementary physics formulae , Elementary physics formulae List of important publications in physics List of physicists List of physics concepts in primary and secondary education curricula Outline of physics Physics outreach Perfection in physics and chemistry Relationship between mathematics and physics Timeline of developments in theoretical physics Timeline of fundamental physics discoveries Main branches Classical mechanics Electromagnetism Modern physics Optics Thermodynamics Related fields Astronomy Chemistry Cosmology Earth science Engineering Mathematics Interdisciplinary fields incorporating physics Acoustics Biophysics Econophysics Geophysics Nanotechnology Neurophysics Psychophysics.

However, the term 'universe' may also be used in slightly different contextual senses, denoting concepts such as the cosmos or the philosophical world. For example, the atom of nineteenth-century physics was denigrated by some, including Ernst Mach 's critique of Ludwig Boltzmann 's formulation of statistical mechanics.

By the end of World War II , the atom was no longer deemed hypothetical. The same might be said for arXiv. Archived from the original on 24 December Retrieved 1 November Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology.

No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves.

Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena. Archived from the original on 10 July Retrieved 1 April University of Chicago Press. Archived from the original on 7 April Archived PDF from the original on 24 September Archived PDF from the original on 18 April Archived from the original on 18 June Retrieved 14 June Archived from the original on 5 September Retrieved 31 July Acoustical Society of America.

Archived from the original on 4 September Retrieved 21 May Inspired by Pythagoras, he founded his Academy in Athens in BC, where he stressed mathematics as a way of understanding more about reality. In particular, he was convinced that geometry was the key to unlocking the secrets of the universe. The sign above the Academy entrance read: I mean the universe, but we cannot understand it if we do not first learn the language and grasp the symbols in which it is written.

This book is written in the mathematical language, and the symbols are triangles, circles, and other geometrical figures, without whose help it is humanly impossible to comprehend a single word of it, and without which one wanders in vain through a dark labyrinth.

Archived from the original on Retrieved 30 January Archived from the original on 18 August Retrieved 31 March Defend the integrity of physics". Archived from the original on 2 April Is the field entering a crisis and, if so, what should we do about it?

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics. Archived from the original on 21 April Max Planck Institute for Physics. Archived from the original on 7 March Retrieved 22 October Dreams of a Final Theory: Newton A unit of force defined as kg. Newton's first law of motion A body continues in a state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line unless it is acted upon by an external unbalanced force. Newton's law of gravitation The gravitational force of attraction acting between any two particles is directly proportional to the product of their masses, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

The force of attraction acts along the line joining the two particles. Real bodies having spherical symmetry act as point masses with their mass assumed to be concentrated at their center of mass.

Newton's second law of motion The rate of change of momentum is equal to the force applied OR the force acting on a body is directly proportional to the product of its mass and acceleration produced by the force in the body. Newton's third law of motion To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. The action and reaction act on two different bodies simultaneously.

Noise Sounds made up of groups of waves of random frequency and intensity. Non Uniform Acceleration When the velocity of a body increases by unequal amounts in equal intervals of time, it is said to have non-uniform acceleration. Non Uniform Speed When a body travels unequal distances in equal intervals of time then it is said to have non-uniform speed. Non Uniform Velocity When a body covers unequal distances in equal intervals of time in a particular direction, or when it covers equal distances in equal intervals but changes it's direction it is said to have non uniform velocity.

Normal A line perpendicular to the surface of a boundary. Nuclear energy The form of energy from reactions involving the nucleus, the innermost part of an atom. Nuclear fission Nuclear reaction of splitting a massive nucleus into more stable, less massive nuclei with an accompanying release of energy. Nuclear force One of four fundamental forces, a strong force of attraction that operates over very short distances between subatomic particles; this force overcomes the electric repulsion of protons in a nucleus and binds the nucleus together.

Nuclear fusion Nuclear reaction of low mass nuclei fusing together to form more stable and more massive nuclei with an accompanying release of energy. Nuclear reactor Steel vessel in which a controlled chain reaction of fissionable materials releases energy. Nucleons Name used to refer to both the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.

Nucleus Tiny, relatively massive and positively charged center of an atom containing protons and neutrons; the small, dense center of an atom numerical constant a constant without units; a number. Ohm's law The electric potential difference is directly proportional to the product of the current times the resistance. Orbital The region of space around the nucleus of an atom where an electron is likely to be found. Origin The only point on a graph where both the x and y variables have a value of zero at the same time.

Oscillatory motion The to and fro motion of a body about its mean position is called oscillatory motion. Oscillatory motion is also called vibratory motion. Oscillatory motion is periodic in nature.

Pauli exclusion principle No two electrons in an atom can have the same four quantum numbers; thus, a maximum of two electrons can occupy a given orbital. The time required for one complete cycle of a wave. Periodic wave A wave in which the particles of the medium oscillate continuously about their mean positions regularly at fixed intervals of time is called a periodic wave.

Permeability The ability to transmit fluids through openings, small passageways, or gaps. Phase change The action of a substance changing from one state of matter to another; a phase change always absorbs or releases internal potential energy that is not associated with a temperature change.

Phase The particles in a wave, which are in the same state of vibration, i. Phases of matter The different physical forms that matter can take as a result of different molecular arrangements, resulting in characteristics of the common phases of a solid, liquid, or gas. Photoelectric effect The movement of electrons in some materials as a result of energy acquired from absorbed light.

Photons A quanta of energy in light wave; the particle associated with light. Physical change A change of the state of a substance but not the identity of the substance pitch the frequency of a sound wave. Planck's constant Proportionality constant in the relationship between the energy of vibrating molecules and their frequency of vibration; a value of 6.

Plasma A phase of matter; a very hot gas consisting of electrons and atoms that have been stripped of their electrons because of high kinetic energies. Plastic strain An adjustment to stress in which materials become molded or bent out of shape under stress and do not return to their original shape after the stress is released.

Polaroid A film that transmits only polarized light. Positive electric charge One of the two types of electric charge; repels other positive charges and attracts negative charges. Positive ion Atom or particle that has a net positive charge due to an electron or electrons being torn away. Potential Energy Energy possessed by a body by the virtue of its position or configuration is called potential energy. There are two types of potential energies, gravitational and elastic.

The potential energy of a body by virtue of its height from the ground is called its gravitational potential energy. The potential energy of a body by virtue of its configuration shape is called its elastic potential energy. Power The rate of doing work is called power. Power is a scalar quantity. Primary coil Part of a transformer; a coil of wire that is connected to a source of alternating current. Principle of calorimetry If no heat is lost to the surroundings and there is no change of state also, then,.

Principle quantum number From quantum mechanics model of the atom, one of four descriptions of the energy state of an electron wave; this quantum number describes the main energy level of an electron in terms of its most probable distance from the nucleus. Projectile An object thrown into space either horizontally or at an acute angle and under the action of gravity is called a projectile.

The path followed by a projectile is called its trajectory. The horizontal distance traveled by a projectile is called its range. The time taken by a projectile from the moment it is thrown until it touches the ground is called its time of flight.

Proof A measure of ethanol concentration of an alcoholic beverage; proof is double the concentration by volume; for example, 50 percent by volume is proof. Properties Qualities or attributes that, taken together, are usually unique to an object; for example, color, texture, and size. Proportionality constant A constant applied to a proportionality statement that transforms the statement into an equation. Pulse A wave of short duration confined to a small portion of the medium at any given time is called a pulse.

A pulse is also called a wave pulse. Quanta Fixed amounts; usually referring to fixed amounts of energy absorbed or emitted by matter. Quantum mechanics Model of the atom based on the wave nature of subatomic particles, the mechanics of electron waves; also called wave mechanics. Quantum numbers Numbers that describe energy states of an electron; in the Bohr model of the atom, the orbit quantum numbers could be any whole number 1, 2, 3, and so on out from the nucleus; in the quantum mechanics model of the atom, four quantum numbers are used to describe the energy state of an electron wave.

Rad A measure of radiation received by a material radiation absorbed dose. Radiant energy The form of energy that can travel through space; for example, visible light and other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Radiation The transfer of heat from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature by greater emission of radiant energy from the region of higher temperature.

Radioactive decay constant A specific constant for a particular isotope that is the ratio of the rate of nuclear disintegration per unit of time to the total number of radioactive nuclei. Radioactive decay series Series of decay reactions that begins with one radioactive nucleus that decays to a second nucleus that decays to a third nucleus and so on until a stable nucleus is reached. Radioactive decay The natural spontaneous disintegration or decomposition of a nucleus.

Radioactivity Spontaneous emission of particles or energy from an atomic nucleus as it disintegrates. Rarefaction A part of a longitudinal wave in which the density of the particles of the medium is less than the normal density is called a rarefaction.

Real image An image generated by a lens or mirror that can be projected onto a screen. Rectilinear Motion The motion of a body in a straight line is called rectilinear motion. Reflected ray A line representing direction of motion of light reflected from a boundary. Reflection The change when light, sound, or other waves bounce backwards off a boundary.

Refraction A change in the direction of travel of light, sound, or other waves crossing a boundary. Relative humidity The percentage of the amount of water vapor actually present in a certain volume of the air to the amount of water vapor needed to saturate it is called the relative humidity of the air. Resonance When the frequency of an external force matches the natural frequency and standing waves are set up. Restoring force The force which tends to bring an oscillating body towards its mean position whenever it is displaced from the mean position is called the restoring force.

Resultant Force A single force, which acts on a body to produce the same effect in it as, done by all other forces collectively, is called the resultant force. Retardation Negative acceleration is called retardation.

In retardation the velocity of a body decreases with time. Reverberation Apparent increase in volume caused by reflections, usually arriving within 0.

Saturated air Air in which equilibrium exists between evaporation and condensation; the relative humidity is percent. Saturated solution The apparent limit to dissolving a given solid in a specified amount of water at a given temperature; a state of equilibrium that exists between dissolving solute and solute coming out of solution. Scalar Quantity A physical quantity, which is described completely by its magnitude, is called a scalar quantity. Scientific law A relationship between quantities, usually described by an equation in the physical sciences; is more important and describes a wider range of phenomena than a scientific principle.

Scientific principle A relationship between quantities concerned with a specific, or narrow range of observations and behavior. Second law of motion The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on that object and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.

Second The standard unit of time in both the metric and English systems of measurement. Secondary coil Part of a transformer, a coil of wire in which the voltage of the original alternating current in the primary coil is stepped up or down by way of electromagnetic induction.

Second's Pendulum A simple pendulum whose time period on the surface of earth is 2 seconds is called the second's pendulum. Semiconductors Elements that have properties between those of a metal and those of a nonmetal sometimes conducting an electric current and sometimes acting like an electrical insulator depending on the conditions and their purity; also called metalloids.

Shear stress Produced when two plates slide past one another or by one plate sliding past another plate that is not moving. Simple harmonic motion The vibratory motion that occurs when there is a restoring force opposite to and proportional to a displacement. Simple Pendulum A heavy point mass actually a small metallic ball , suspended by a light inextensible string from a frictionless rigid support is called a simple pendulum. A simple pendulum is a simple machine based on the effect of gravity.

Solenoid A cylindrical coil of wire that becomes electromagnetic when a current runs through it. Solids A phase of matter with molecules that remain close to fixed equilibrium positions due to strong interactions between the molecules, resulting in the characteristic definite shape and definite volume of a solid. Sonic boom Sound waves that pile up into a shock wave when a source is traveling at or faster than the speed of sound.

Specific heat Each substance has its own specific heat, which is defined as the amount of energy or heat needed to increase the temperature of one gram of a substance one degree Celsius.

Speed The distance traveled by a body in one unit of time is called its speed. Spin quantum number From quantum mechanics model of the atom, one of four descriptions of the energy state of an electron wave; this quantum number describes the spin orientation of an electron relative to an external magnetic field.

Standing waves Condition where two waves of equal frequency traveling in opposite directions meet and form stationary regions of maximum displacement due to constructive interference and stationary regions of zero displacement due to destructive interference. State of Motion When a body changes it's position with respect to a fixed point in it's surroundings then it is said to be in a state of motion.

The states of rest and motion are relative to the frame of reference. State of Rest When a body does not change its position with respect to a fixed point in it's surrounding, then it is said to be in a state of rest. Steam-point It is the temperature of steam over pure boiling water under 1 atm pressure. The steam point is taken as the upper fixed point deg C or deg F for temperature scales. Superconductors Some materials in which, under certain conditions, the electrical resistance approaches zero.

Super-cooled Water in the liquid phase when the temperature is below the freezing point. Supersaturated Containing more than the normal saturation amount of a solute at a given temperature. Temperature It is a numerical measure of hotness or coldness of a body. According to the molecular model, it is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules of the body. Heat flows from a body at higher temperature to a body at lower temperature.

Tensional stress The opposite of compressional stress; occurs when one part of a plate moves away from another part that does not move. Thermal Capacity The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of the whole body by one degree 1K or 1deg C is called its thermal capacity. Thermal Equilibrium When the two bodies in contact are at the same temperature and there is no flow of heat between them, these are said to be in thermal equilibrium. The common temperature of the bodies in thermal equilibrium is called the equilibrium temperature.

Thermal Expansion The increase in the size of an object on heating is called thermal expansion. Thermometer It is a device used for numerical measurement of temperature. The commonly used thermometer is mercury thermometer. Third law of motion Whenever two objects interact, the force exerted on one object is equal in size and opposite in direction to the force exerted on the other object; forces always occur in matched pairs that are equal and opposite.

Time Period of a wave The time taken by a wave to travel through a distance equal to its wavelength is called its time period. It is denoted by T. Time Period of an oscillation The time taken to complete one oscillation is called the time period of an oscillation.

The time period of a pendulum does not depend upon the mass of the bob and amplitude of oscillation. The time period of a pendulum is directly proportional to the square root of the length and inversely proportional to the square root of the acceleration due to gravity. Total internal reflection Condition where all light is reflected back from a boundary between materials; occurs when light arrives at a boundary at the critical angle or beyond. Transverse waves A wave in which the particles of the medium oscillate in a direction perpendicular of the direction of propagation of wave is called the transverse wave.

Water waves, light waves and radio waves are examples of transverse waves. Trough The point of maximum negative displacement on a transverse wave is called a trough. Ultrasonic Sound waves too high in frequency to be heard by the human ear; frequencies above 20,Hz.

Unbalanced forces When a number of forces act on a body and the resultant force is not zero, then the forces are said to be unbalanced. Uniform Acceleration When the velocity of a body increases by equal amounts in equal intervals of time it is said to have uniform acceleration.

Uniform Circular Motion The motion of an object in a circular path with uniform speed is called uniform circular motion.

Uniform circular motion is accelerated motion. Uniform Speed When a body travels equal distances in equal intervals of time then it is said to have uniform speed.

Uniform Velocity When a body travels along a straight line in particular direction and covers equal distances in equal intervals of time it is said to have uniform velocity.

Universal law of gravitation Every object in the universe is attracted to every other object with a force directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the centers of the two masses.

Unpolarized light Light consisting of transverse waves vibrating in all conceivable random directions. Van der Wall's force General term for weak attractive intermolecular forces. Vapor The gaseous state of a substance that is normally in the liquid state. Vector Quantity A quantity, which needs both magnitude and direction to describe it, is called a vector quantity. Such a physical quantity should also follow the vector law of addition.

Velocity Distance traveled by a body in a particular direction per unit time is called its velocity. It can also be defined as the displacement of the body per unit time. Physics is a quantitative science because it is based on measuring with numbers. Mathematics is used in physics to make models that try to guess what will happen in nature. The guesses are compared to the way the real world works.

These guesses are made by theoretical physicists, and they are compared to the real world by experimental physicists. Physicists are always working to make their models of the world better. Physics is the science of matter and how matter interacts.

Matter is any physical material in the universe. Everything is made of matter. Physics is used to describe the physical universe around us, and to predict how it will behave.

Physics is the science concerned with the discovery and characterization of the universal laws which govern matter , movement and forces , and space and time , and other features of the natural world. The sweep of physics is broad, from the smallest components of matter and the forces that hold it together, to galaxies and even larger things.

There are only four forces that appear to operate over this whole range. However, even these four forces gravity , electromagnetism , the weak force associated with radioactivity, and the strong force which holds protons and neutrons in an atom together are believed to be different parts of a single force. Physics is mainly focused on the goal of making ever simpler, more general, and more accurate rules that define the character and behavior of matter and space itself.

One of the major goals of physics is making theories that apply to everything in the universe. In other words, physics can be viewed as the study of those universal laws which define, at the most basic level possible, the behavior of the physical universe. Physics uses the scientific method. That is, data from experiments and observations are collected.

Theories which attempt to explain these data are produced. Physics uses these theories to not only describe physical phenomena, but to model physical systems and predict how these physical systems will behave. Physicists then compare these predictions to observations or experimental evidence to show whether the theory is right or wrong.

The theories that are well supported by data and are especially simple and general are sometimes called scientific laws. Of course, all theories, including those known as laws, can be replaced by more accurate and more general laws, when a disagreement with data is found. Physics is more quantitative than most other sciences. That is, many of the observations in physics may be represented in the form of numerical measurements. Most of the theories in physics use mathematics to express their principles.

Most of the predictions from these theories are numerical. This is because of the areas which physics has addressed work better with quantitative approaches than other areas. Sciences also tend to become more quantitative with time as they become more highly developed, and physics is one of the oldest sciences. Classical physics normally includes the fields of mechanics , optics , electricity , magnetism , acoustics and thermodynamics.

Modern physics is a term normally used to cover fields which rely on quantum theory, including quantum mechanics , atomic physics, nuclear physics , particle physics and condensed matter physics , as well as the more modern fields of general and special relativity , but these last two are often considered fields of classical physics as they do not rely on quantum theory.

Although this difference can be found in older writings, it is of little new interest as quantum effects are now understood to be of importance even in fields that before were called classical. There are many approaches to studying physics, and many different kinds of activities in physics. There are two main types of activities in physics; the collection of data and the development of theories.

The data in some subfields of physics is amenable to experiment. For example, condensed matter physics and nuclear physics benefit from the ability to perform experiments. Experimental physics focuses mainly on an empirical approach.


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Molecular physics – The study of the physical properties of molecules, the chemical bonds between atoms as well as the molecular canlimacizlemek.tky related to atomic physics and overlaps greatly with theoretical chemistry, physical chemistry and chemical physics.

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Absolute humidity: The ratio of water vapor in a sample of air to the volume of the sample. Absolute zero: The temperature of - or 0 K at which molecular motion vanishes.

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Van der Wall's force General term for weak attractive intermolecular forces Vapor The gaseous state of a substance that is normally in the liquid state Vector Quantity A quantity, which needs both magnitude and direction to describe it, is called a vector quantity. (General Physics) the branch of science concerned with the properties of matter and energy and the relationships between them. It is based on mathematics and traditionally includes mechanics, optics, electricity and magnetism, acoustics, and heat. Modern physics, based on quantum theory, includes atomic, nuclear, particle, and solid-state studies.

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Physics definition is - a science that deals with matter and energy and their interactions. a science that deals with matter and energy and their interactions; the physical processes and phenomena of a particular system. Acceleration - Acceleration is the measurement of the change in an object's velocity. It is equal to the change in velocity over the change in time. Acceleration is a vector. Collision - A collision in physics occurs when any two objects bump into each other. Displacement - In physics, displacement refers to an object's overall change in position. It is a vector quantity.