In some organs, such as the gut and bone marrow, stem cells regularly divide to repair and replace worn out or damaged tissues. In other organs, however, such as the pancreas and the heart, stem cells only divide under special conditions.
Until recently, scientists primarily worked with two kinds of stem cells from animals and humans: The functions and characteristics of these cells will be explained in this document. Scientists discovered ways to derive embryonic stem cells from early mouse embryos more than 30 years ago, in The detailed study of the biology of mouse stem cells led to the discovery, in , of a method to derive stem cells from human embryos and grow the cells in the laboratory.
These cells are called human embryonic stem cells. The embryos used in these studies were created for reproductive purposes through in vitro fertilization procedures. When they were no longer needed for that purpose, they were donated for research with the informed consent of the donor. In , researchers made another breakthrough by identifying conditions that would allow some specialized adult cells to be "reprogrammed" genetically to assume a stem cell-like state. This new type of stem cell, called induced pluripotent stem cells iPSCs , will be discussed in a later section of this document.
Stem cells are important for living organisms for many reasons. In the 3- to 5-day-old embryo, called a blastocyst , the inner cells give rise to the entire body of the organism, including all of the many specialized cell types and organs such as the heart, lungs, skin, sperm, eggs and other tissues. In some adult tissues, such as bone marrow, muscle, and brain, discrete populations of adult stem cells generate replacements for cells that are lost through normal wear and tear, injury, or disease.
Given their unique regenerative abilities, stem cells offer new potentials for treating diseases such as diabetes, and heart disease. However, much work remains to be done in the laboratory and the clinic to understand how to use these cells for cell-based therapies to treat disease, which is also referred to as regenerative or reparative medicine.
Scientists are already using stem cells in the laboratory to screen new drugs and to develop model systems to study normal growth and identify the causes of birth defects. View More on Journal Insights. Publishing your article with us has many benefits, such as having access to a personal dashboard: This free service is available to anyone who has published and whose publication is in Scopus.
Researcher Academy Author Services Try out personalized alert features. View All Most Downloaded Articles. Copy number variations in healthy subjects. Generation of ZZUiA, a transgene-free, induced pluripotent stem cell line derived from chorionic villi cells of a fetus with Duchenne muscular dystrophy Xiaofan Zhu Aojie Cai View All Recent Articles.
Functional assessment of spermatogonial stem cell purity in experimental cell populations Tessa Lord Jon M. Oatley Feedback control of pluripotency in embryonic stem cells: Signaling, transcription and epigenetics Dmitri Papatsenko Avinash Waghray Cell surface markers for the identification and study of human naive pluripotent stem cells Oliver Trusler Ziyi Huang View All Review Articles.
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- Stem Cell Research Stem cells are a large focus of study in today's biomedical world. Stem cell research offers the hope of transplants being done without the sacrifice of another person losing an organ. There are many different pros and cons when it comes to discussing the use of stem cells.
Advances in stem cell research The history of this cells’ research is for more than 5 decades. In the early , there was the discovery that the bone marrow has at least two different types of stem cells.
Stem Cell Research is dedicated to publishing high-quality manuscripts focusing on the biology and applications of stem cell research. Submissions to Stem Cell Research, may cover all aspects of stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, tissue-specific stem cells, cancerstem cells, developmental studies, genomics and translational research. Stem cell research is one of the most fascinating areas of contemporary biology, but, as with many expanding fields of scientific inquiry, research on stem cells raises scientific questions as rapidly as it generates new discoveries.
Ultimately, the possible benefits and controversial status of life that an embryo embodies qualify embryonic stem cell research as ethical, as long as the stem cells are obtained in an ethical manner. Arguments for Embryonic Stem Cell Research. In the realm of stem cell research, embryonic and adult stem cells are often compared. The most downloaded articles from Stem Cell Research in the last 90 days. The most downloaded articles from Stem Cell Research in the last 90 days. Source Normalized Impact per Paper Spermatogonial stem cells and spermatogenesis in mice, monkeys and men. May