With the observational method sometimes referred to as field observation animal and human behavior is closely observed. There are two main categories of the observational method — naturalistic observation and laboratory observation.
The biggest advantage of the naturalistic method of research is that researchers view participants in their natural environments. This leads to greater ecological validity than laboratory observation, proponents say. Proponents of laboratory observation often suggest that due to more control in the laboratory, the results found when using laboratory observation are more meaningful than those obtained with naturalistic observation.
Laboratory observations are usually less time-consuming and cheaper than naturalistic observations. Of course, both naturalistic and laboratory observation are important in regard to the advancement of scientific knowledge. Case study research involves an in-depth study of an individual or group of indviduals. Case studies often lead to testable hypotheses and allow us to study rare phenomena. Case studies should not be used to determine cause and effect, and they have limited use for making accurate predictions.
There are two serious problems with case studies — expectancy effects and atypical individuals. Describing atypical individuals may lead to poor generalizations and detract from external validity. In survey method research, participants answer questions administered through interviews or questionnaires. After participants answer the questions, researchers describe the responses given.
In order for the survey to be both reliable and valid it is important that the questions are constructed properly. Questions should be written so they are clear and easy to comprehend. Another consideration when designing questions is whether to include open-ended, closed-ended, partially open-ended, or rating-scale questions for a detailed discussion refer to Jackson, Advantages and disadvantages can be found with each type:. Open-ended questions allow for a greater variety of responses from participants but are difficult to analyze statistically because the data must be coded or reduced in some manner.
Closed-ended questions are easy to analyze statistically, but they seriously limit the responses that participants can give. In addition to the methods listed above some individuals also include qualitative as a distinct method and archival methods when discussing descriptive research methods.
It is important to emphasize that descriptive research methods can only describe a set of observations or the data collected. It cannot draw conclusions from that data about which way the relationship goes — Does A cause B, or does B cause A?
An appropriate research strategy not only provides a direction to your study but also helps in choosing the right methodology for collecting and analysis the data for your research.
Therefore, it is very important to choose an appreciate strategy while conducting your research. If we talk the types of strategies followed in research, there are generally of two basic types: However, if you go in deep there are many other strategies on the basis of your research type, such as Descriptive, Analytical, Applied, Fundamental, Exploratory, Critical, Interpretive and Predictive.
Not every time research involves numbers or calculations that you can analyze. Sometimes you need to understand the underlying opinions and reasons for deeper knowledge of the problem. It gives insights into the research problem and helps to achieve objectives of the research by various methods such as interviews, observations, textual material, open-ended surveys, oral history and focus groups.
Another way to figure out is to look at patterns in numeric data, which can only be analyzed using statistics. The statistical, mathematical, and numerical analysis of collected data comes under the quantitative strategy of research.
In academics, the first type of research strategy applied by researchers is always quantitative research. It focuses on when, where, what, how long and how often a specific phenomenon occurs. In quantitative strategy, the researcher plays with variables for the desired outcomes. You can see the best example of this type of research strategy in the natural world; U. A Census, Population rate and all other research involving a study of numerical data is carried out by quantitative research strategy.
As the name suggests, a descriptive strategy is used when you want to describe a particular situation. It observes and describes the behavior of an individual, community, group or a thing without affecting it in any way. The best part about descriptive strategy is that the subject is being observed in an unchanged and completely natural environment.
It does not manipulate any condition; it just describes what already exists in surrounding and can help to uncover the hidden facts and figures of the subject. In this research strategy, you do not have any control over the variables; you can only state what is happening and what has happened to your subject.
Now the biggest question is when you should choose descriptive strategy? When you want to study the relationship between two things, for an example, how many hours a student spends studying for the exams and his subsequent marks in that exam, so you make a correlational study.
Or you want to know how changing the amount of water and sunlight affects the growth a plant, so you create an experimental study. The descriptive strategy involves three methods: Surveys, Observations, and Case studies to understand a specific set of variables and to collect data that provides a description of individuals, groups, communities or situations. Analytical research strategy involves the use of already available facts and information. A researcher studies and analyzes the available data in an attempt to explain the complex problems.
Say, for example, your research is based on the Condition of slavery in America after Thirteenth Amendment. Examining the fluctuations of U.
A position in Global Slavery Index during the period f is an example of the descriptive strategy of research; while explaining why and how U. S slavery rates move in a particular way over this period is the analytical strategy of research.
It has been studied that most of the scientifically based problem-solving approaches use the analytical strategy to fulfill the aims and objectives of the research. By using this strategy, you can search critical details and new information to add ideas in the information being produced.
Do you have any knowledge about Ebola virus? It is a virus that causes organs failure and can lead to death. The virus was first identified in and killed about 11, people in West Africa during the period to Why am I telling you this?
This is because it is called as the applied or action research strategy; a research strategy that aims at finding the solution to an immediate problem.
It is applied by an agency, company or government to address a particular problem. In the above case, the researcher did the investigation to find out the most effective treatment for Ebola virus and that what is the main purpose of applied strategy for research.
This strategy can be used in various fields, like for example, researching which strategy work best to motivate physically challenged students, studying different Cell phone designs to determine which is the most efficient for working women, Development of strategies to introduce change in Mc Donald global supply chain management or an investigation for the ways of improving employee motivation in Google.
Do you know the factors impacting each stage of a tertiary food chain? I guess you do!
Basic types of research strategies are the, well, most basic of them all. These are the research methodologies that are done simply because the researcher wants to get to know the certain topic. Basically, basic research is done for the enhancement of the knowledge of the person running the research.
The research strategy for this dissertation was established by adopting a way which the research objectives can be answered. There are two main types of research strategies: quantitative and qualitative.
Quantitative research really targets the statistics and size of your target customer, whereas qualitative research tries to get into the mindset of that group. When doing qualitative research, consider these examples to use or . Types of Research Strategy. An appropriate research strategy not only provides a direction to your study but also helps in choosing the right methodology for collecting and analysis the data for your research.
Research Types And Research Strategies It's necessary to choose the right type of research strategy that suits the research aim and objectives. It's considered to be very essential while doing a research. Research strategy and research ethics. research methods, sampling strategies and data analysis techniques. Whilst all of these components can have ethical implications for your dissertation, we focus on research designs, a couple of research methods, sampling strategies.