Your abstract should contain at least your research topic, research questions, participants, methods, results, data analysis, and conclusions.
You may also include possible implications of your research and future work you see connected with your findings. Your abstract should be a single paragraph, double-spaced. Your abstract should be between and words. You may also want to list keywords from your paper in your abstract. To do this, indent as you would if you were starting a new paragraph, type Keywords: Listing your keywords will help researchers find your work in databases.
The page template for the new OWL site does not include contributors' names or the page's last edited date. However, select pages, like the Citation Style Chart , still include this information. Purdue Online Writing Lab. Contributors' names Last edited date.
Common Words that Sound Alike Numbers: Text Elements Visual Rhetoric: Process and Materials Overview: An Introduction Researching Programs: Practical Considerations Researching Programs: Drafting Your Statement Statements of Purpose: The Basics In-Text Citations: Basic Rules Reference List: Articles in Periodicals Reference List: Other Print Sources Reference List: Electronic Sources Reference List: Organization and Structure Graduate Writing Workshops: Introductions Graduate Writing Workshops: Literature Reviews Graduate Writing Workshops: Style Graduate Writing Workshops: Editing and Proofreading Graduate Writing Workshops: Copyright and Plagiarism Collaborative Authorship Handout: Specificity in Writing Grant Writing: There really is no correct way to write a paper , as things stand, so it is most important to make sure that you are consistent and that the paper has a nice 'flow', and is readable.
The principle is not as complicated as it seems, because it is simple an extension of what you already know. One of the major changes in APA format is that, in a co-authored paper, you can use 'We'.
For example, 'We found that', or 'Our research showed that'. However, just to complicate things, some academics are pushing for change towards using the first person, in order to avoid the passive completely. APA writing style needs to be formal. Avoid using slang words and avoid contractions, such as 'don't', 'won't', couldn't.
Formality used to mean sticking with a passive style of writing, but attitudes towards using the passive voice have changed over the past few years. Even ten years ago, most disciplines required the passive voice.
That has changed, and it is better to try to make a paper as active as possible. For example, instead of 'It was found that…' you could try "Bandura discovered" or "The results showed that…".
With APA writing style, it is important to try to remain neutral with the terminology that you use. This includes avoiding gender specific language, wherever possible. For example, if you are talking about Albert Einstein and Jane Goodall, you can use 'he' or 'she'. If all of your test subjects are women, you can also use 'she', but if the group is mixed, you must use a neutral term such as 'subjects', or 'people'. You must avoid pejorative terms such as AIDS 'victims' or cancer sufferers.
These may seem to be fine distinctions, but try to remember that language changes over time and a word that is acceptable now may not be suitable in twenty years.
Look at an anthropology paper from the early Twentieth Century, where indigenous people are referred to as 'Savages' and 'Heathens,' and you will see why this is important. If you have any doubt, use terminology found in the current literature or ask your supervisor - finding a neutral tone can be a minefield! The constantly evolving APA writing style is undergoing some major changes, mainly as an attempt to make scientific papers more accessible to non-scientists.
The main thing to remember is that the APA writing style guide is a general guide, not a set rules. Listen to your supervisor or teacher, because they mark the paper, and try not to be too bogged down in the details. If you complete a great research project, and write an interesting paper, it is unlikely that you will be penalized.
Check out our quiz-page with tests about:. Martyn Shuttleworth Jun 6, Retrieved Sep 10, from Explorable. The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4.
The authority on APA Style and the 6th edition of the APA Publication Manual. Find tutorials, the APA Style Blog, how to format papers in APA Style, and other resources to help you improve your writing, master APA Style, and learn the conventions of scholarly publishing.
APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.
The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus. APA Style Introduction // Purdue Writing . The APA writing style has evolved through time and several changes have been adapted in response to the electronic information age. What follows are some useful pointers for those of you who have been asked to write a paper using the APA format. In general, .
APA Paper Formatting & Style Guidelines Your teacher may want you to format your paper using APA guidelines. If you were told to create your citations in APA format, your paper should be formatted using the APA guidelines as well. General guidelines: Use white 8 ½ x 11” paper. Make [ ]. The Basics of APA Style ® This tutorial is designed for those who have no previous knowledge of APA Style ®. It shows users how to structure and format their work, recommends ways to reduce bias in language, identifies how to avoid charges of plagiarism, shows how to cite references in text, and provides selected reference examples.