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Sample essay on Animal Husbandry

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❶Export of processed meat from India started early in seventies and in A.

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Cows and she- buffaloes furnish milk. Animal excreta are used as farm manures. Animal husbandry and dairy development play a significant role in rural development. Cattle are an asset to small and minor farmers, who supplement their farm revenue through the milk they generate.

The Indian cattle species are known for their toughness and immunity towards tropical diseases. They are therefore in great demand, internationally. Extra endeavours are being taken to improve cattle breed, primarily for yielding more milk. Embryo transfer technology is now being applied in an extensive way. Artificial insemination centres have been established all over the country.

In , their figure was million cattle and 43 million buffaloes. Milk production was 17 million tonnes in It had risen to 71 million tonnes by India stands 2nd in the world, next only to the U. Within a short period of time, it will overtake U. Uttar Pradesh stands as the leader in cattle rearing, and is toed closely by Madhya Pradesh.

But the choicest bulls and buffaloes are from Punjab, Haryana and Gujarat. Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, from its breeds, Surti and Murrah buffaloes from Gujarat and Punjab respectively are well-known.

The kankrej variety of cattle dates back to the Mohenjodaro and Harappa days. The , livestock census calculates their total number at above 48 million. Livestock management on modern lines requires large amounts of energy and material resources.

High quality livestock feed, water, energy and suitable space etc. For a poor country acquiring self-sufficiency in food grain production requires just kg of cereals per person per year. But about kg of grains per person per year shall be needed if the people consume non-vegetarian diets with gms of animal protein per day.

The traditional practice of livestock management involved raising the animal population mostly on organic wastes from agriculture whereas the faucal matter from livestock population provided excellent organic manure to the fields. This nutrient loop has been disrupted by modern animal husbandry which tends to isolate livestock from agricultural set-ups. Large amounts of organic wastes produced by animal farms have to be disposed of on one hand whereas large quantities of organic debris produced from crop field's piles up and has to be disposed of on the other hand.

The two fail to reach each other. This multiplies the problem of organic waste disposal. It has been estimated that ruminating animals discharge about 80 million tons of methane gas in belching and flatulence every year. Microbial activity in organic wastes and animal feed also releases about 35 million tons of methane per year on a world-wide basis. This adds unto about million tons. We have developed huge livestock population which need something to eat, something to live on.

This has resulted in enormous destruction of natural vegetation. Catties and other ruminating livestock graze almost half of the planet's total land area. With pigs and poultry they also consume fodder and feed produced on about one-fourth of our cropland. Though familiar and ubiquitous, the tremendous impact of our livestock population on the global environment has not been fully recognized.

Over-grazing is a major threat to forests and wild-land in a number of developing countries of the world. Every year vast areas of forested land are cleared to be used as pastures. A high meat consumption and gradually rising use of grains as livestock feed is detrimental to human society. The adverse effects of excessive meat eating stems from the mistaken belief that we require large quantities of high quality proteins for good health and vigour.

This has led people in developing countries to ingest almost twice as much protein as they actually require. The danger lies in saturated fats which are present along with proteins in meat and dairy products.

These fats are associated with most of the diseases of the rich and wealthy, like heart ailments, strokes and cancers of breast and colone, etc. A diet rich in animal protein is neither healthy for man nor its promotion is a wise development strategy. Meat, milk eggs and milk products come from secondary trophic levels whereas vegetable matter, fruits, nuts or grains come from primary trophic level.

For a poor country where people use few animal products self-sufficiency in food grain production can be achieved by much less production than countries where people consume predominantly non-vegetarian diets.

For about five to six fold increase in meat consumption the quantity of grains required to attain self-sufficiency per capita per year doubles up. Therefore, instead of promoting large-scale, industry-like management, it should be better if we encourage the development of small animal husbandry units and maintain a closer co-ordination with our agricultural set-ups. A management on co-operative style which involves small farmers, the rural poor's, should be promoted so that the benefit goes largely to the masses instead of industrialists or capitalists.

Prosperity at grass-root level shall automatically moderate many of the ill-effects originating from the huge livestock population which we have to breed. This should also keep the problems created by industry-like animal husbandry units within manageable limits. Since times immemorial animal husbandry has been a vocation complimentary to agriculture in India. Milk, milk products, eggs, meat, leather woolens etc. But above all it is the organic manure and cheap labour for irrigation, ploughing and transport etc.

India is a land of sacred cow. There has always been more emphasis on maintenance of livestock for the recurring benefits which they provide instead of killing and consuming them in toto. This is highlighted by the fact that in spite of having a huge live-stock population, India has only about registered slaughter houses and an annual production of about 4. Catties and buffaloes are not reared for meat production.

Most of the meat from large animals comes from their slaughter at the end of their productive life-span as much or draft animals.

Unlike Western countries, in India, there is a little demand for processed meat which involves treatment of fresh meat in such a way as to make it more palatable to the consumers and require little kitchen work. There are few units in our country manufacturing processed meat products, most of which are confined to larger cities.

Export of processed meat from India started early in seventies and in A. Though the origin of poultry industry can be traced back to our country, as the modern hybrid he owes its ancestry to the Red Jungle Fowl of India, poultry farming as a commercial enterprise. Is only a recent development in India. However, the growth of Indian poultry from a back-yard activity to an organized industry has been phenomenal.

Organized poultry farming was introduced only in the sixties. Today, in spite of many setbacks, it has achieved a production of 28, million eggs and million broilers. By , there has been a fivefold increase in egg production and about seventyfold rise in broiler production over the figures of the year In India dairy has been a subsidiary to agriculture and means of bare subsistence for the poor's since pre-historic times. However, it has now developed into a well, recognised industry and during the last twenty-five years it has carved out a place among the major milk producers of the world.

Milk output in was a meager 17 million tons per year which rose to


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Animal husbandry is the art of rearing animals for getting milk, skin, hides and horns and using them on the farms for agricultural purposes. Short Essay on Animal Husbandry .

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