Nancy Cott defines feminism as the belief in the importance of gender equality, invalidating the idea of gender hierarchy as a socially constructed concept. Feminism has earned itself a bad reputation, but it never undermined gender differences that exist between males and females. A man can never be as good a mother as a female can. Similarly, a woman can never be as good a father as a male can. While accepting these anatomical and physiological differences between the two genders, feminism seeks for both genders to be equally respected.
They are both human and as a species, humans cannot progress without either one of them. Maggie Humm and Rebecca Walker divide the history of feminism into three waves. In each wave of the movement, though men have taken part in significant responses to feminism, the relationship between men and feminism has been complex. Historically, a number of men have engaged with feminism.
Philosopher Jeremy Bentham demanded equal rights for women in the eighteenth century. In , philosopher John Stuart Mill presented a women's petition to the British Parliament and supported an amendment to the Reform Bill. An extension of feminism into theoretical or philosophical fields such as anthropology, sociology, economics, women's studies, literary criticism, art history, and psychoanalysis is called feminist theory. Feminist theory aims to understand gender inequality and focuses on gender politics, power relations, and sexuality.
While providing a critique of these social and political relations, much of feminist theory focuses on the promotion of women's rights and interests. Themes explored in feminist theory include discrimination, stereotyping, objectification especially sexual objectification , oppression, and patriarchy.
Today, feminist theory has manifested in a variety of disciplines such as feminist geography, feminist history, feminist theology, and feminist literary criticism and has changed traditional perspectives on a wide range of areas in human life, from culture to law.
Feminist activists have campaigned for women's legal rights such as rights of contract, property rights, and voting rights while also promoting women's rights to bodily integrity and autonomy, abortion rights, and reproductive rights. They have struggled to protect women and girls from domestic violence, sexual harassment, and rape. Feminist groups followed the example set by these movements, adopting the techniques of consciousness raising, protests, demonstrations, and political lobbying in order to further their own agenda.
The founding of the National Organization for Women NOW in marked the formation of an official group to represent and campaign for women's concerns. Leaders such as Friedan, Bella Abzug, Shirley Chisholm, and Gloria Steinem pressured politicians to become aware of women's concerns and to work on legislation that would improve the quality of women's lives.
In the early s feminist leaders also established a detailed program of proposed political and legal reforms, and in the National Women's Agenda was presented to President Gerald Ford, all state governors, and all members of Congress. In , feminists organized a National Women's Conference in Houston, where they drafted an action plan that included twenty-six resolutions; the plan was subsequently distributed to government officials to remind them of their responsibility to female constituents.
NOW and the newly organized National Women's Political Caucus worked to influence politicians and legislators while continuing their effort to keep women's issues prominent in the media. During the s, American society was colored by an increasingly conservative political climate and the feminist movement experienced a backlash within their ranks and from anti-feminist detractors.
Feminism had always been criticized for being a predominantly white, upperclass movement and for its failure to adequately understand and represent the concerns of poor, African-American, and Hispanic women.
The movement had already splintered in the s along the lines of liberal feminists, who focused on the rights of women as individuals; radical feminists, who aligned themselves with revolutionary groups, viewing women as a disenfranchised class of citizens; and lesbians, who had been very much a part of the early feminist movement, but now found more in common with the gay liberation movement.
Legislative gains achieved in the s—notably Congress's passing of the ERA amendment and key judicial decisions, chief among them Roe v.
Wade, which guaranteed women's reproductive rights—were under attack by conservative and religious antiabortion coalitions and an organized anti-ERA effort led by Phyllis Schlafly.
Some state legislatures backtracked under pressure, overturning or diluting court decisions made in the previous decade. Due to a combination of political and social factors, the amendment failed to pass in the individual states. In addition, some women who had subscribed to the tenets of the feminist movement now voiced their displeasure at being negatively labeled anti-male and expressed regret at the loss of personal security that traditional women's roles offer.
Their concerns echoed in the neoconservative writings of authors such as Naomi Wolf, Susan Faludi, and Camille Paglia. Nevertheless, feminists pressed on, maintaining pressure on legislators to address women's issues such as reproductive rights, pay equity, affirmative action, sexual harassment, and the handling of rape victims in the courts.
The main point that feminist want to spread throughout the world is that women are just as valuable as men and therefore should be treated just as equally. Gender equality is the main goal that feminists would like to achieve. In order to achieve this goal, there are different types of strategies, socialist feminism, liberal feminism and radical feminism.
One of the main views of a socialist feminist is that wealth and dominance was always controlled by the men. These socialists do not believe that reforms carried out by men go far enough.
What they believe is that replacing the traditional family could only come around by creating an economy that would for once meet the needs of everyone in the nation. The main belief of liberal feminists is that individuals should be free to bring up their own talents and reach whatever goals and interests that they want. The biggest goal that these feminists try to achieve is to try and expand the rights and opportunities of women, which happens to be discussed in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
These liberal feminists agree to reproductive freedom for every single woman. They also have a great deal of respect for the family as a social institution but would like to see changes in the areas of maternity and paternity leave as well as child care for the working parent.
Radical feminists find that liberal feminism is insufficient. They also do not believe that even a socialist revolution could put an end to this patriarchy. Radical feminists believe that in order to achieve equality in genders, we must totally forget about gender itself.
Feminism is the belief in social, political, and economic equality of the sexes. And it is the feminist movement that has been trying to give these rights to women who have been deprived of their equality and privileges that men have never given them. I believe that women have every right to be equal with men and feminism is what is slowly /5(12).
Feminism. Essay sample by canlimacizlemek.tk company. Introduction. Feminism refers to a broad range of ideas, approaches, and ideologies directed towards .
FEMINISM essaysWhat is feminism? By general definition, feminism is a philosophy in which women and their contributions are valued. It is based on social, political and economical equality for women. Feminists can be anyone in the population, men, women, girl or boys. Feminism can also be describ. The best feminism essays and feminism articles -- Great short articles and essays on feminism.
- Western feminism and development Western feminism started mainly emphasizing on women’s role in development during the s what is known as the “Second Wave” of feminist movements. Essay on Feminism: Feminism is a set of political ideas, philosophical and social seeking to define, promote, and establish the rights of women in the civil society and private sphere. It is embodied in organizations whose objectives are to abolish the social, economic, political, legal, and cultural inequalities, whose victims are women.