People who are pro-GMO believe that it is better because there are less toxic chemicals used that could potentially destroy the environment and endanger the lives of those who come in contact with them Lab Manual: There are a few different ways to test for the presence of GMOs.
We used the polymerase chain reaction PCR method. This method enabled us to make copies of or amplify sections of DNA sequence exponentially. This makes it easier for us to see the different bands when the gel electrophoresis is performed at the end of the experiment.
ELISA is not particularly useful for testing highly processed foods, because the proteins were probably obliterated. DNA is more resistant than proteins in processing so it can be extracted from even the most heavily processed foods.
The difference is that when a whole food undergoes DNA extraction it tends to keep its proteins whereas processed food tends to lose its proteins. We do this because we need to compare them in order to give valid results. The DNA products separate according to size in through the electrophoresis gel because it has a negative charge whereas the gel itself has a positive charge.
The smaller fragments move faster than the larger ones. We place a molecular weight ruler of a known size alongside the experimental and control samples. This helps compare the migration distance of the experimental fragments with the migration distance of the fragments of the known size that make up the molecular weight ruler.
It is the promoter gene found in the Cauliflower Mosaic virus. This lab is used to help educate us more about what we consume and the decisions we should be making over the GMO controversy.
Essay UK - http: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. The use of biotechnology when used for agriculture and food production increases the environmental, economic and ethical concerns.
The use of genetically engineered organisms poses apprehensive questions on the risk to human health. Progress in technology and especially genetic engineering of food is not what it once was. The way food was once grown and made has long passed.
What are the possible risks and effects of this technology and is there enough information to determine the consequences GMOs will have on human health. This technology dates back to the early s and in Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA was first discovered by Andrei Nikolaevitch Belozersky a Russian scientist.
This tomato has a longer shelf life than conventional tomato, but in the Flavr Savr was pulled off the grocery shelves due to economic difficulties. The marketplace began embracing GMO technology and by over million acres worldwide are planted with genetically engineered seeds.
In scientist have figured out how to stack genes combining more than one trait from the same plant and it is estimated that 89 percent of all soybeans and 61 percent of all corn grown in the United States has been genetically engineered International Food Information Council, The FDA approved genetically engineered corn, soy, cotton, canola, potato, squash and tomato for commercialization in and since then the amount of crops genetically engineered has been steadily increasing. The genes are often altered to render the plant resistant to either insects or herbicides.
The number of crops since approved by the FDA has been crops. Countries with poor resources can benefit from biotechnology which will help provide more stable crops. Genetically modified crops can increase the nutritional quality of agricultural products and also help reduce season planting problems and cut cost.
Crops can be produced to be resistant to herbicide which means they can be sprayed with herbicide to kill weeds and the crops will not be affected. This will help reduce the amount of herbicide used and a reduction in cost for the farmers and consumers.
Cost for genetically modified foods may be expensive in the initial stages of research but, in the end this option will cost less overall for farmers due to the reduction in pesticide and herbicide which will help produce higher yields of quality product. Legal and ethical concerns that GMOs present are an ongoing debate. People wonder if it is ethical to file intellectual property on the genetic sequence of an organism. Biotech companies argue that IP-based revenue is used to promote further research and some worry that ownership of a particular sequence prevents widespread research and hinders scientific discovery.
S Supreme court ruled that patents cannot be filed on naturally occurring human gene sequences, but this ruling left room for loopholes and does not apply to GMO products. Legal debates are far from over.
The political implications on genetic engineering in the world of science and around the world are a controversial topic. It is evident that with population on the rise there will not be enough production of food to sustain the needs of the growing population. This could be a possible solution to help sustain the world food supply. Research and testing is helping raise livestock and grow crops more efficiently. There are many concerns behind the genetic practices and over the safety of genetically modified foods on humans.
The question is can genetically modified foods be a good solution to help feed the growing population and what are the pros and cons associated with the social, ethical and scientific implications?
How difficult would it be to segregate genetically modified organisms from other organisms and what effects could this introduction of new genes into the natural context of the environment have? Tests conducted on genetically modified crops only look at short-term effects not what effects it could have in the long range. Genetic structure on any living thing is very intricate and complex.
The consequences that technology of genetically modified organism could have on the environment is not known and a system as complex as genetic codes is not something to take lightly and should not be taken for granted without knowing all the facts.
Despite the legal, ethical and environmental controversies surrounding GMO products there is potential on many different research horizons. Genetic engineering could prove to be a useful tool to help address the increasing rate of population and the problem of global hunger must be addressed. It is important to weigh the benefits and consequences and not dismiss this technology before we have all the facts. There needs to be more research to help evaluate the safety of genetic engineering and to realize its full potential for scientific discovery.
We will discuss throughout the rest of this paper the advantages and disadvantages of genetically modifying foods and crops. There needs to be further studies conducted to fully understand the effects this could have on human health and also on the environment. Everyone has an opinion on GMOs and until we have further information we have to assume that it could be a good solution to our growing population and food supply, but we need to take the necessary precautions before we find ourselves worse off.
Let me take some to time to explain what the term labeling means. When genetically modified foods have a label on it, it states that it was made from genetically modified crops. The United States and Canada are the only countries that do not require labeling on genetically modified foods. There are 50 countries in the world that either ban genetically modified organisms completely or have a lot of restrictions on it.
The labeling of genetically modified foods has been known to cause concerns. There are several positive and negative arguments of labeling genetically modified organisms. One positive argument of labeling genetically modified organisms is that consumers have the right to know what is in their food.
Another positive argument about labeling genetically modified organisms is that it will allow consumers to stay away from the food that causes them problems. A negative argument of labeling genetically modified organisms is that it may imply a warning about health issues. Another negative argument of labeling genetically modified organisms is it will impose a cost on all consumers.
As of right now it does not look like the United States requirements for labeling genetically modified organism will change anytime soon. There are not any requirements for the way food is labeled, but there are federal bills in play that could change the way genetically modified foods are labeled in the future. There are a few states that approved the legislation for requiring labels on genetically modified organisms.
The first state that approved the legislation was Connecticut and that happened in Recently Maine was the second state to approve the legislation. These legislations that were approved will not go into effect until more of the northeastern states endorse a similar legislation. Just this year alone 67 genetically modified organisms labeling bills have been presented in 25 states. Last year in there were genetically modified organisms bills presented in 32 states.
Along with the states that have the pending legislations, there are a few more states that are trying to put the GMO labeling question on the ballot. The states that are trying to put the question on the ballot are Arizona, Colorado, Florida, Hawaii, and Oregon. Last year Washington voters rejected the genetically modified organism ballot; and that ballot turned out to be the most expensive ballot question ever.
In the United States three different government agencies have jurisdiction over the genetically modified organism foods. The EPA evaluates genetically modified plants for environmental safety. The EPA also conducts risk assessment studies on pesticides that could cause harm to human health and the environment. The USDA evaluates whether the plant is safe to grow or not. The USDA is responsible for all the genetically modified organism crops that do not fall under the umbrella of the EPA; an example of the crops that the USDA handles are drought tolerant, and disease tolerant crops.
The USDA has several internal divisions which all share the responsibility for assessing genetically modified organism foods. The FDA evaluates whether the plant is safe to eat or not.
The FDA believes that genetically modified organism foods are substantially equivalent to unmodified, natural foods, and is not subject to FDA regulations. The current FDA policy was created in and it states that companies may voluntarily ask the FDA for a consultation.
The FDA agency does not have the time, money or resources to carry out the safety studies of all the genetically modified food products. Everyone might not support genetically modified organisms, but they are very cost effective.
When using genetically engineered crops such as insect resistant crops saves money because they require less pesticides to be used. These genetically modified crops will help all farmers save money as well as help them gain profits. There are many economic advantages for genetically modified foods. Some of the advantages are pest resistance, herbicide tolerance, disease resistance, nutrition, and pharmaceuticals.
There are many fungi and bacteria that can cause plant diseases. Some biologists are working on genetically engineered crops that will prevent the fungi and bacteria that cause the diseases. Herbicide is a spray that farmers use to destroy weeds instead of removing the weed physically themselves.
Spraying herbicides is a time consuming and expensive process. The herbicides could potentially harm the crops and the environment. Pesticide resistance is said to be one of the most damaging impacts that genetically engineered crops have caused in the economy. Farmers typically use many tons of chemical pesticides annually. People do not want to eat food that has been treated with pesticides because of the potential health hazards.
There are millions of acres of farmlands in the United States that are infested by weeds that have become resistant to herbicide. In order for farmers to fight these weeds they have to use more toxic herbicides. There are some companies that are working to develop new genetically engineered crops to tolerate the older herbicides, but there is no guarantee that the same thing as before will not happen again. Along with economic advantages, there are also disadvantages.
Some people believe that the farmers are the biggest losers when it comes to genetically modified agriculture. It is believed that farmers are tricked with deceptive advertising. Although genetically modified crops can produce a little more corn than organic crops; genetically modified crops reduces other output from the plant for example seeds, leaves, roots etc.
The genetically modified organism can decimate the communities of organisms that create soil, so that the farmer is stuck wondering why their soil fertility drops every year. In countries like India, the people are afraid that if they switch over to genetically modified organisms many people will lose their jobs.
India is a country with over 1. There are over million farmers in India, and if they were to start using genetically modified organisms then over million farmers will be looking for work. There are no other job industry in India that is creating this many jobs. It would not be logical for India farmers to switch to genetically modified crops. Genetically Modified Organisms has been a growing hot button issue over the past decade. As time has come and gone, many farmers have started growing cheaper genetically modified crops, which have created a surplus of genetically modified food.
This has created a lot of tension between consumers and suppliers and now many of these consumers are demanding that the genetically modified foods be properly labeled. Genetically modified crops have been the answer, especially with all the companies that have a current high demand for them, these farmers have definitely exploited that demand.
They are numerous citizen outreach groups, like the Coalition for Safe Affordable Foods aim to lower costs but keep the same healthy quality food and as time continues these groups will only become stronger and stronger simply because of how many people are starting to realize how unhealthy their daily food from grocery stores actually is.
These Genetically modified crops are planted in fields similar to regular crops and they interact directly with different organisms that would normally feed on the crops and would interact incidentally with other creatures in the food chain. Again like normal crops, the pollen from the engineered crop is released into the environment, which has led to serious concerns about the possible effects that genetically engineered crops on other species and about the gene flow, the transfer of alleles a number of alternative forms of same gene or same genetic locus or genes from one population to another.
Since they are genetically engineered, companies and farmers can chose exactly what they want to genetically altered. These crops, while under development, are able to thrive in environmental conditions outside the species native range. Obviously there are some big negatives with genetically engineered crops, most of which have been made relatively public, but there are some positives if companies start using genetically altered plants in a more responsible manner.
The willingness of consumers to pay a premium price for organic foods food not genetically modified has come at a time when genetically modified foods have come under scrutiny.
These studies also revealed that Europeans are much more willing to pay a premium for non-GM foods than their American counterpart. This is also consistent with public policy, as there are required labeling of all genetically modified. As of late, genetic modification of food has been associated with a great deal of media attention, although technically this rise of media coverage was by the spring of add. With the rise of GMO awareness groups especially when considering food media attention has risen in the past decade due to consumer complaints have also led to a more close eye on what exactly is going on, and further investigation into what we, as a country, are putting into our body.
Through all of the media frenzy and consumer uproar, eat healthy movements have led many of these consumers to question the validity of the GMO companies claiming their products are healthy.
Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) is one of the most important issues from around the world. GMOs are special organisms in which the genetic material has been altered for %(1).
Genetically modified organism Most existing genetically modified crops have been developed to improve yield, through the introduction of resistance to plant diseases or of increased tolerance of herbicides.
Free gmo foods papers, essays, and research papers. Apr 17, · The Fight Against GMO’s. Think back to the last meal you had; now think about how much of that food you consumed was genetically modified (GM). About 80% of today’s processed food contains genetically modified organisms, otherwise known as GMO’s. (Hemphill, Syagnik).
GMO Essay. Harvest of Fear Essay There are many benefits GMO’s. One of the pros of genetically modified crops is a better taste, increased nutrients, resistance to disease and pests, and faster . GMO Essay Genetically Modified Organisms – Benefit, Danger, and Morality Issue The usage of genetically modified organisms in various industries, generally in .