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❶For students in middle and junior high school, the correlation suggests a positive but weak relationship. National Center for Educational Statistics.

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Meet our editors and experts, have fun, acquire knowledge and share some of your own. Answers on the go. Download for iOS devices today. This generates a spider web of icons representing other articles related to the one you were reading. A highly interactive series of apps that for ages covering a topics in science and social studies, including rainforests, dinosaurs, Ancient Rome, U.

A fun educational experience, with video, color images, quizzes, and puzzles. For iOS devices and Android. Studies done at Carnegie-Mellon University show that real competence is the result of extensive practice. An additional finding from the National Assessment for Educational Progress concludes that year-olds who typically spend more that two hours a day doing homework have higher average reading scores than those who spend less than an hour per day or no time at all on homework.

Experts perceive that homework is a good way to review, reinforce, and practice what has been taught. Homework is also considered to be a good way to assimilate new information related to what has been studied. In addition, homework is judged as an avenue that allows teachers to assess students' understanding of what has been presented. It is also seen as a method of preparation for the next day's work and a valuable way to study for tests. In addition, it is purported to teach direction following, organizational skills, time management, and re-search skills, as well as supporting the communication between parents and the school.

Some feel that homework builds character. Negative arguments include that homework suppresses creativity and chokes the desire to learn. Many also observe that it creates unnecessary anxiety for the child and the family and can have a negative impact on the family as a whole.

Others feel that assigning homework is unfair without support available to children whose families have little time or little knowledge about the technology taught and the approaches to teaching that are considered valuable today. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, homework was given in greater quantities than in the past, in part due to the increased difficulty in getting into top colleges and the more challenging job market that faced graduates.

The resources available to students who wished support with their homework also grew. Homework hotlines were available, as were special homework tutors and tutorial programs offered in learning centers.

In addition, numerous Internet nodes offered homework support, and many schools had after school programs where time was set aside for children to work on their homework under supervision.

National Center for Educational Statistics. The Condition of Education Department of Education, Homework is not only a routine aspect of schoolchildren's lives, but also the key daily interaction between school and family. As such, it often leads to tension between family and school over control of children's time and over parents' role in education — particularly after the expansion of mass schooling during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. A vocal anti-homework movement emerged in the United States in the early twentieth century, asserting parental prerogatives and children's rights.

One critic argued that "the cultural or recreational life of the family is seriously restricted or handicapped … by the school's invasion of the home hours" "Home Study? The anti-homework position reflected the growing influence internationally of scientific knowledge about children's health and development. This in turn motivated a Progressive reform movement in education that rejected rote methods of teaching and learning in favor of individualized, "childcentered" approaches.

Many educators argued that homework had no place in a Progressive educational regime, particularly in the elementary grades. During the first half of the twentieth century, school policies in many communities across the United States commanded the reduction or abolition of homework. Nevertheless, throughout the era of mass education, most parents supported homework, at least in moderate amounts.

They regarded homework not only as essential to academic achievement, but also as an important means for children to develop self-discipline and responsibility. Finally, some parents viewed homework not as an intrusion into family time but as a critical means of understanding how the school is educating their child. In the words of a parent from the s, "Homework is a wonderful connecting link between the parents and the child's school life" "Do You Believe in Homework?

Two decades later, another parent made the point more bluntly: During the second half of the twentieth century, expert opinion increasingly came into line with parental views in support of homework. After the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik satellite in , U. The resulting focus on science and mathematics reinforced challenges to Progressive education and sparked interest in using homework to support increasingly ambitious academic goals. By the s, at least in the United States , a "back-to-basics" movement had largely replaced the earlier Progressive discourse in education.

With it came a celebration of homework as vital to fostering academic attainment, moral virtue, and international economic competitiveness — and a strong endorsement of parental partnership in schooling. Not all parents joined in the celebration of homework, however, particularly when its sheer quantity was over-whelming for their children or their family life. But in the United States the great majority of children never spent much time on homework.

Despite small increases for high-school students in the post-Sputnik decade and for young children in the s and s, homework involved only a modest time commitment for most American students throughout the second half of the twentieth century. In the primary grades, despite the increases at the end of the century, homework occupied most children for only two hours weekly — an amount perhaps comparable to that given in other industrial nations.

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, high-school students in many parts of Europe and Asia were spending substantial amounts of time on homework. In the United States, by contrast, an enormous gap was evident between a solidly pro-homework discourse and levels of homework practice that remained stubbornly low, even among college-bound students. Chen, Chuansheng, and Harold W.

Replies For and Against. Progressive Education and the Crusade to Abolish Homework, — The American Way of Homework, — Washington Education Journal November: Langdon, Grace, and Irving W. Work, Play, and Developmental Opportunities. Not to be confused with school—children's tasks set by the school to be undertaken at home, nor with unpaid domestic labour , the latter referring to the goods and services including housework produced within the home for consumption by household members.

Homework is a tool for reinforcing and expanding on concepts introduced in the classroom. It can help foster independence, self-discipline, and a love of learning in younger children and can improve an older child's performance on standardized tests. Critics of homework say that it overburdens children and can adversely affect a child's development by cutting in on leisure time and creating tension in the home.

In addition, some children may be at a disadvantage if their parents are ill prepared to assist with homework because of their work schedules or their inability to comprehend the subject matter.

Some education experts have also pointed out that studies have never conclusively proven that homework improves overall academic performance among grade-school children. Despite these criticisms, many believe that homework has a place in a child's education. Homework is most effective when assignments are meaningful, have a clear purpose and instructions, and are well matched to a student's abilities.

Print this article Print all entries for this topic Cite this article. Purpose The most common purpose of homework is to have students practice material already presented in class so as to reinforce learning and facilitate mastery of specific skills. Improved homework resources designed to support a variety of curriculum subjects and standards.

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From Britannica, an online encyclopedia resource for kids in grades K with safe, fact-checked, age-appropriate content for homework help and learning. Homework can actually lead to the acquisition of undesirable character traits if it promotes cheating, either through the copying of assignments or help with homework that goes beyond tutoring. Finally, homework could accentuate existing social inequities.

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Homework Help Encyclopedia homework help encyclopedia san diego homework helpers phd thesis us college denver university admissions essayHomework, or a homework assignment, is a set of tasks assigned to students by their teachers to be completed outside the class. Homework Help Encyclopedia homework help encyclopedia Infoplease Sources. Video Library. A large collection of informational and educational videos from animals and landmarks to language arts and Monster is a free reference site for students, teachers, and parents.