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Positivism

What Is the Approach Taken by Progressivism Towards Education?

❶Methodology is focused on the specific ways -- the methods -- that we can use to try to understand our world better. We should think about the assumptions we make about the world when we conduct research.

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What Is an Interpretivist Approach?


This assumes that social research is value-laden, and a mix of methodologies creates a more holistic picture of research results to solve complex social problems.

What Is the Positivist Approach? Quick Answer According to the City University of New York at Baruch College, the positivist approach involves the implementation of the scientific method to investigate social issues. Full Answer The positivist approach requires the use of the scientific method. Learn more about Philosophy. What Did Francis Bacon Discover? Known as the "Father of Empiricism," Francis Bacon established the Baconian method to investigate natural science. A critical realist believes that there is a reality independent of our thinking about it that science can study.

This is in contrast with a subjectivist who would hold that there is no external reality -- we're each making this all up! Positivists were also realists. The difference is that the post-positivist critical realist recognizes that all observation is fallible and has error and that all theory is revisable.

In other words, the critical realist is critical of our ability to know reality with certainty. Where the positivist believed that the goal of science was to uncover the truth, the post-positivist critical realist believes that the goal of science is to hold steadfastly to the goal of getting it right about reality, even though we can never achieve that goal!

Because all measurement is fallible, the post-positivist emphasizes the importance of multiple measures and observations, each of which may possess different types of error, and the need to use triangulation across these multiple errorful sources to try to get a better bead on what's happening in reality. The post-positivist also believes that all observations are theory-laden and that scientists and everyone else, for that matter are inherently biased by their cultural experiences, world views, and so on.

This is not cause to give up in despair, however. Just because I have my world view based on my experiences and you have yours doesn't mean that we can't hope to translate from each other's experiences or understand each other. That is, post-positivism rejects the relativist idea of the incommensurability of different perspectives, the idea that we can never understand each other because we come from different experiences and cultures.

Most post-positivists are constructivists who believe that we each construct our view of the world based on our perceptions of it. Because perception and observation is fallible, our constructions must be imperfect. So what is meant by objectivity in a post-positivist world? Positivists believed that objectivity was a characteristic that resided in the individual scientist.

Scientists are responsible for putting aside their biases and beliefs and seeing the world as it 'really' is. Post-positivists reject the idea that any individual can see the world perfectly as it really is. We are all biased and all of our observations are affected theory-laden. Our best hope for achieving objectivity is to triangulate across multiple fallible perspectives! Thus, objectivity is not the characteristic of an individual, it is inherently a social phenomenon.

It is what multiple individuals are trying to achieve when they criticize each other's work. We never achieve objectivity perfectly, but we can approach it.

The best way for us to improve the objectivity of what we do is to do it within the context of a broader contentious community of truth-seekers including other scientists who criticize each other's work.

The positivist paradigm follows a determination that every phenomenon or occurrence has a cause that can define the effect or the consequence. Positivists believe that there are pre-tested theories that can determine this cause and effect and these theories can be generalized to various settings.

In social science, positivism and postpositivism emerged from the belief that human behavior can be tested and measured just like any other natural phenomenon in our surroundings.

Positivists in social science work on the cause and effect model that is used in the pure science, this enables them to predict human behavior under certain circumstances. Positivists use quantitative methods of data collection in social science.

They control the external factors and study the effect of independent variable on the dependent variable.

In pure sciences, it is easy to achieve a control over external variables because the experiments are conducted in laboratory settings, on the other hand in social sciences it is easy said than done. Human behavior is determined by multiple of factors and one behavior can be the result of several beliefs and perceptions that, that person might not show in a controlled environment.


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Positivism belongs to epistemology which can be specified as philosophy of knowing, whereas methodology is an approach to knowing. As a philosophy.

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Positivism and Interpretivism are the two basic approaches to research methods in Sociology. Positivist prefer scientific quantitative methods, while Interpretivists prefer .

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Positivism in general refers to philosophical positions that emphasize empirical data and scientific methods. This tradition holds that the world consists of regularities, that these regularities are detectable, and, thus, that the researcher can infer knowledge about the real world by observing it. Home» Foundations» Philosophy of Research» Positivism & Post-Positivism. Let's start our very brief discussion of philosophy of science with a simple distinction between epistemology and methodology. The term epistemology comes from the Greek word epistêmê, their term for knowledge. In simple terms, epistemology is the philosophy of.

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Some researchers prefer a combination of quantitative and qualitative research for a post-positivist approach. This assumes that social research is value-laden, and a mix of methodologies creates a more holistic picture of research results to solve complex social problems. Background There are three commonly known philosophical research paradigms used to guide research methods and analysis: positivism, interpretivism and critical theory. Being able to justify the decision to adopt or reject a philosophy should be part of the basis of research.