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Data Collection Methods

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❶Comparative analysis examines similarities and differences in events during different time periods-for example, the budget-cutting priorities and procedures of the Proposition 13 era of the early s in parks and recreation as compared to the budget-cutting priorities and procedures of today. In addition, one can ask follow-up questions for clarification, something that is practically impossible when using most secondary data.

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In this method, trained investigators are working as employees for collecting the data. In this method we have to collect more accurate data and original data. This method is useful for small data collection only not big collection of data projects.

This is accurate and very quick process for data collection. But information collected is not accurate and true. Data collecting from the ministry of finance, Agriculture, Industry and etc. These data collection methods are official methods.

This methods only used for the focusing groups, and interviews, and electronic mail surveys. In this case the data's are already available, it means the data's are already collected and analyzed by someone else. It can be either published or unpublished data. When using the secondary data, the following characteristics must be followed: These data's can be collected from the following places: Over 11,, live tutoring sessions served! Secondary data analysis can save time that would otherwise be spent collecting data and, particularly in the case of quantitative data , can provide larger and higher-quality databases that would be unfeasible for any individual researcher to collect on their own.

However, secondary data analysis can be less useful in marketing research, as data may be outdated or inaccurate. Government departments and agencies routinely collect information when registering people or carrying out transactions, or for record keeping — usually when delivering a service.

This information is called administrative data. A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. It is a type of administrative data, but it is collected for the purpose of research at specific intervals. Most administrative data is collected continuously and for the purpose of delivering a service to the people. Secondary data is available from other sources and may already have been used in previous research, making it easier to carry out further research.

It is time-saving and cost-efficient: A researcher is interested in the effect of an outdoor recreation program the independent variable, experimental treatment, or intervention variable on behaviors dependent or outcome variables of youth-at-risk. In this example, the independent variable outdoor recreation program is expected to effect a change in the dependent variable.

Even with a well designed study, an question remains, how can the researcher be confident that the changes in behavior, if any, were caused by the outdoor recreation program, and not some other, intervening or extraneous variable?

An experimental design does not eliminate intervening or extraneous variables; but, it attempts to account for their effects. The random assignment of individual subjects to comparison groups; The extent to which the independent variable can be manipulated by the researcher; The time when the observations or measurements of the dependent variable occur; and Which groups are measured and how. The portion of a sample or population that is exposed to a manipulation of the independent variable is known as the treatment group.

For example, youth who enroll and participate in recreation programs are the treatment group, and the group to which no recreation services are provided constitutes the control group. There are two primary criteria for evaluating the validity of an experimental design. Determines whether the independent variable made a difference in the study?

Can a cause-and-effect relationship be observed? To achieve internal validity, the researcher must design and conduct the study so that only the independent variable can be the cause of the results Cozby, External validity , refers to the extent to which findings can be generalized or be considered representative of the population.

Premeasurement and interaction errors Maturation errors History errors Instrumentation errors Selection bias errors Mortality errors. Survey the literature for current research related to your study.

Define the problem, formulate a hypothesis, define basic terms and variables, and operationalize variables. Develop a research plan: Select a research design see Chapter 3. Randomly select subjects and randomly assign them to groups. Validate all instruments used. Develop data collection procedures, conduct a pilot study, and refine the instrument.

State the null and alternative hypotheses and set the statistical significance level of the study. Conduct the research experiment s. Analyze all data, conduct appropriate statistical tests and report results. The primary difference between true designs and quasi designs is that quasi designs do not use random assignment into treatment or control groups since this design is used in existing naturally occurring settings. Groups are given pretests, then one group is given a treatment and then both groups are given a post-test.

This creates a continuous question of internal and external validity, since the subjects are self-selected. The steps used in a quasi design are the same as true designs. An ex post facto design will determine which variables discriminate between subject groups. Formulate the research problem including identification of factors that may influence dependent variable s.

Identify alternate hypotheses that may explain the relationships. Identify and select subject groups. Collect and analyze data Ex post facto studies cannot prove causation, but may provide insight into understanding of phenomenon. The NGT is a group discussion structuring technique. It is useful for providing a focused effort on topics. The NGT provides a method to identify issues of concern to special interest groups or the public at large.

Ewert noted that the NGT is a collective decision-making technique for use in park and recreation planning and management. The NGT is used to obtain insight into group issues, behaviors and future research needs. The final list of ideas becomes the focus of further research and discussion.

These ideas can also be used to generate a work plan for a formal strategic planning process, a basis for a survey or interview, or the development of a scale. The delphi method was developed to structure discussions and summarize options from a selected group to: Although the data may prove to be valuable, the collection process is very time consuming.

When time is available and respondents are willing to be queried over a period of time, the technique can be very powerful in identifying trends and predicting future events.

The technique requires a series of questionnaires and feedback reports to a group of individuals. A new questionnaire is prepared that includes the new material, and the process is repeated until a consensus is reached. The reading below is a research study that used the delphi technique and content analysis to develop a national professional certification program.

Richard Krueger , describe the focus group as a special type of group in terms of purpose, size, composition, and procedures. A focus group is typically composed of seven to twelve participants who are unfamiliar with each other and conducted by a trained interviewer. These participants are selected because they have certain characteristics in common that relate to the topic of the focus group.

The researcher creates a permissive environment in the focus group that nurtures different perceptions and points of view, without pressuring participants to vote, plan, or reach consensus. The group discussion is conducted several times with similar types of participants to identify trends and patterns in perceptions. Careful and systematic analysis of the discussions provide clues and insights as to how a product, service, or opportunity is perceived.

A focus group can be defined as a carefully planned discussion designed to obtain perceptions on a defined area of interest in a permissive, nonthreatening environment.

It is conducted with approximately seven to twelve people by a skilled interviewer. The discussion is relaxed, comfortable, and often enjoyable for participants as they share their ideas and perceptions.

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Data collection methods can be divided into two categories: secondary methods of data collection and primary methods of data collection. Secondary Data Collection Methods. Secondary data is a type of data that has already been published in books, newspapers, magazines, journals, online portals etc.

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The secondary data are readily available from the other sources and as such, there are no specific collection methods. The researcher can obtain data from the sources both internal and external to .

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Video: Secondary Data in Marketing Research: Definition, Sources & Collection Marketing research requires data, and secondary data is often the most convenient and cost-effective option. that secondary data analysis is a viable method to utilize in the process of inquiry when a systematic procedure is followed and presents an illustrative research application utilizing secondary data analysis in library and information science research.

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DATA COLLECTION PRIMARY & SECONDARY PRESENTATION BY: Amogh Kadam Rizwan Shaikh Prathmesh Parab Primary Research Methods & Techniques Primary Research Quantitative Data Surveys Qualitative Data Experiments Personal interview (intercepts) Mail In-house, selfadministered Telephone, fax, e-mail, Web Mechanical observation Simulation Focus. Most research requires the collection of primary data (data that you collect at first hand), and this is what students concentrate on. Unfortunately, many research reports do not include secondary data in their findings section although it is perfectly acceptable to do so, providing you have analyzed it.