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Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)

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Choose the Right Birth Control. What is Deep Vein Thrombosis? Put an End to Nail Fungus. How Much is Enough? Shocking Diseases of the Mouth. The Stigma of Psoriasis. Guide to Understanding Cancer. These two problems can lead to people becoming housebound for long periods of time. Drugs unrelated to SLE should be prescribed only when known not to exacerbate the disease. Occupational exposure to silica , pesticides , and mercury can also worsen the disease.

In this form of the disease the cause is very different from lupus: If this disorder is suspected in people, brain scans are usually required for early detection. These scans can show localized areas of the brain where blood supply has not been adequate.

The treatment plan for these people requires anticoagulation. Often, low-dose aspirin is prescribed for this purpose, although for cases involving thrombosis anticoagulants such as warfarin are used. While most infants born to mothers who have SLE are healthy, pregnant mothers with SLE should remain under medical care until delivery. Neonatal lupus is rare, but identification of mothers at highest risk for complications allows for prompt treatment before or after birth. In addition, SLE can flare up during pregnancy, and proper treatment can maintain the health of the mother longer.

Women pregnant and known to have anti-Ro SSA or anti-La antibodies SSB often have echocardiograms during the 16th and 30th weeks of pregnancy to monitor the health of the heart and surrounding vasculature. Contraception and other reliable forms of pregnancy prevention is routinely advised for women with SLE, since getting pregnant during active disease was found to be harmful. Lupus nephritis was the most common manifestation.

No cure is available for SLE but there are many treatments for the disease. In the s, most people diagnosed with SLE lived fewer than five years. Prognosis is typically worse for men and children than for women; however, if symptoms are present after age 60, the disease tends to run a more benign course.

Early mortality, within 5 years, is due to organ failure or overwhelming infections, both of which can be altered by early diagnosis and treatment. The mortality risk is fivefold when compared to the normal population in the late stages, which can be attributed to cardiovascular disease from accelerated atherosclerosis, the leading cause of death for people with SLE.

Steroids should be used at the lowest dose for the shortest possible period, and other drugs that can reduce symptoms should be used whenever possible. The global rates of SLE are approximately 20—70 per , people. In females, the rate is highest between 45 and 64 years of age.

The lowest overall rate exists in Iceland and Japan. The highest rates exist in the US and France. However, there is no sufficient evidence to conclude that SLE is less common in some countries compared to others, since there is significant environmental variability in these countries.

For example, different countries receive different levels of sunlight, and exposure to UV rays affects dermatological symptoms of SLE. Certain studies hypothesize that a genetic connection exists between race and lupus which affects disease prevalence. If this is true, the racial composition of countries affects disease, and will cause the incidence in a country to change as the racial makeup changes. In order to understand if this is true, countries with largely homogenous and racially stable populations should be studied to better understand incidence.

The rate of SLE varies between countries, ethnicity, and sex, and changes over time. While the onset and persistence of SLE can show disparities between genders, socioeconomic status also plays a major role. Women with SLE and of lower socioeconomic status have been shown to have higher depression scores, higher body mass index, and more restricted access to medical care than women of higher socioeconomic statuses with the illness. People with SLE had more self-reported anxiety and depression scores if they were from a lower socioeconomic status.

There are assertions that race affects the rate of SLE. However, a review of studies which correlate race and SLE identified several sources of systematic and methodological error, indicating that the connection between race and SLE may be spurious. Another caveat to note when examining studies about SLE is that symptoms are often self-reported.

This process introduces additional sources of methodological error. Studies have shown that self-reported data is affected by more than just the patients experience with the disease- social support, the level of helplessness, and abnormal illness-related behaviors also factor into a self-assessment.

Non-white patients often report more hematological, serosal, neurological, and renal symptoms. However, the severity of symptoms and mortality are both similar in white and non-white patients. Studies that report different rates of disease progression in late-stage SLE are most likely reflecting differences in socioeconomic status and the corresponding access to care.

SLE, like many autoimmune diseases, affects females more frequently than males, at a rate of about 9 to 1. The Y chromosome has no identified mutations associated with autoimmune disease. Hormonal mechanisms could explain the increased incidence of SLE in females. The onset of SLE could be attributed to the elevated hydroxylation of estrogen and the abnormally decreased levels of androgens in females. While females are more likely to relapse than males, the intensity of these relapses is the same for both sexes.

In addition to hormonal mechanisms, specific genetic influences found on the X chromosome may also contribute to the development of SLE. Studies indicate that the X chromosome can determine the levels of sex hormones. A study has shown an association between Klinefelter syndrome and SLE.

Whether the increase is due to better diagnosis or to increasing frequency of the disease is unknown. The history of SLE can be divided into three periods: In each period, research and documentation advanced the understanding and diagnosis of SLE, leading to its classification as an autoimmune disease in , and to the various diagnostic options and treatments now available to people with SLE. The advances made by medical science in the diagnosis and treatment of SLE have dramatically improved the life expectancy of a person diagnosed with SLE.

There are several explanations ventured for the term lupus erythematosus. The classical period began when the disease was first recognized in the Middle Ages. The term lupus is attributed to 12th-century Italian physician Rogerius Frugard , who used it to describe ulcerating sores on the legs of people. The neoclassical period began in when the skin disease which is now known as discoid lupus was documented by the French physician, Pierre Cazenave.

Cazenave termed the illness lupus and added the word erythematosus to distinguish this disease from other illnesses that affected the skin except they were infectious.

He was one of the first to document that lupus affected adults from adolescence into the early thirties and that the facial rash is its most distinguishing feature. Research and documentation of the disease continued in the neoclassical period with the work of Ferdinand von Hebra and his son-in-law, Moritz Kaposi.

They documented the physical effects of lupus as well as some insights into the possibility that the disease caused internal trauma. Von Hebra observed that lupus symptoms could last many years and that the disease could go "dormant" after years of aggressive activity and then re-appear with symptoms following the same general pattern. These observations led Hebra to term lupus a chronic disease in Kaposi observed that lupus assumed two forms: Kaposi also observed those patients who developed the "butterfly rash" or malar rash often were afflicted with another disease such as tuberculosis, anemia, or chlorisis which often caused death.

The 19th century's research into lupus continued with the work of Sir William Osler who, in , published the first of his three papers about the internal complications of erythema exudativum multiforme.

Not all the patient cases in his paper had SLE but Osler's work expanded the knowledge of systemic diseases and documented extensive and critical visceral complications for several diseases including lupus.

Further study of the disease led to a third paper, published in , documenting afflictions such as arthritis, pneumonia, the inability to form coherent ideas, delirium, and central nervous system damage as all affecting patients diagnosed with SLE.

The modern period, beginning in , saw major developments in research into the cause and treatment of discoid and systemic lupus. Research conducted in the s and s led to the first detailed pathologic descriptions of lupus and demonstrated how the disease affected the kidney, heart, and lung tissue.

Discovered by a team of researchers at the Mayo Clinic , they discovered that the white blood cells contained the nucleus of another cell that was pushing against the white's cell proper nucleus. Their presence can be helpful in establishing a diagnosis but no longer indicates a definitive SLE diagnosis. The discovery of the LE cell led to further research and this resulted in more definitive tests for lupus. Building on the knowledge that those with SLE had auto-antibodies that would attach themselves to the nuclei of normal cells, causing the immune system to send white blood cells to fight off these "invaders", a test was developed to look for the anti-nuclear antibody ANA rather than the LE cell specifically.

This ANA test was easier to perform and led not only to a definitive diagnosis of lupus but also many other related diseases. This discovery led to the development of what are now known as autoimmune diseases. To ensure that the person has lupus and not another autoimmune disease, the American College of Rheumatology ACR established a list of clinical and immunologic criteria that, in any combination, point to SLE. The criteria include symptoms that the person can identify e. The list was originally compiled in , initially revised in , and further revised and improved in Medical historians have theorized that people with porphyria a disease that shares many symptoms with SLE generated folklore stories of vampires and werewolves, due to the photosensitivity, scarring, hair growth, and porphyrin brownish-red stained teeth in severe recessive forms of porphyria or combinations of the disorder, known as dual, homozygous, or compound heterozygous porphyrias.

Useful medication for the disease was first found in , when quinine was first reported as an effective therapy. Four years later, the use of salicylates in conjunction with quinine was noted to be of still greater benefit.

This was the best available treatment until the middle of the twentieth century, when Hench discovered the efficacy of corticosteroids in the treatment of SLE. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about a type of lupus. For the group of diseases known as "lupus", see Lupus erythematosus. For other uses, see Lupus disambiguation and SLE disambiguation. Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus. Systemic lupus erythematosus and pregnancy. Archived from the original on 17 June Retrieved 12 June Retrieved 13 June Orphanet journal of rare diseases.

The Language of Medicine. Archived at the Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on January 15, Isenberg February 28, N Engl J Med. Archived from the original on March 2, Archived from the original on Head and neck manifestations of systemic disease.

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The Journal of rheumatology. Arthritis and musculoskeletal disorders. Top 10 clinical pearls". The Journal of Musculoskeletal Medicine. Archived from the original on April 27, Clinical analysis and review of the literature". Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. Archived from the original on 26 January Retrieved 20 April Dorland's Medical Dictionary for Health Consumers. American Journal of Human Genetics.

Lupus Foundation of America. Retrieved 20 June A Long-term Follow-up Study of 92 Patients". Crow February 28, Archived from the original on March 5, Graham; Barmak Modrek; et al. Archived from the original on March 3, General discussion of hypersensitivity, not specific to SLE".

Journal of Drugs in Dermatology. Current Directions in Autoimmunity. The lupus band test in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Application to diagnosis and classification of systemic lupus erythematosus". The American Journal of Medicine. Retrieved 7 June Thomas' Hospital "alternative" criteria". Archived from the original on 3 May Retrieved 6 May Immunology and cell biology. Retrieved 10 January Archived from the original on August 3, Department of Health and Human Services".

European Journal of Rheumatology. National Institutes of Health. Lupus Foundation of America website. Archived from the original on 20 March Retrieved 14 December Current Opinion in Rheumatology. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology.

Archived from the original on 4 November Retrieved 11 October A Comprehensive Guide for Patients and Families. Johns Hopkins University Press. In Dubois, Edmund L. A review of the current status of Discoid and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Diseases of the skin including the Exanthemata Vol. The New Sydenham Society.

The body against itself 2nd ed. A Handbook for Physicians, Patients, and their Families 2nd ed. Lupus Foundation of America Inc. Everything you need to know 2nd ed.

Expert Review of Clinical Immunology. Biology portal Medicine portal. Diseases of the skin and appendages by morphology. Freckles lentigo melasma nevus melanoma. Aphthous stomatitis oral candidiasis lichen planus leukoplakia pemphigus vulgaris mucous membrane pemphigoid cicatricial pemphigoid herpesvirus coxsackievirus syphilis systemic histoplasmosis squamous-cell carcinoma.

Dermatitis and eczema L20—L30 , —, Pityriasis simplex capillitii Cradle cap. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis African blackwood dermatitis Tulip fingers other: Abietic acid dermatitis Diaper rash Airbag dermatitis Baboon syndrome Contact stomatitis Protein contact dermatitis.

Pruritus ani Pruritus scroti Pruritus vulvae Scalp pruritus Drug-induced pruritus Hydroxyethyl starch-induced pruritus Senile pruritus Aquagenic pruritus Aquadynia Adult blaschkitis due to liver disease Biliary pruritus Cholestatic pruritus Prion pruritus Prurigo pigmentosa Prurigo simplex Puncta pruritica Uremic pruritus. Systemic connective tissue disorders M32—M36 , Hypersensitivity and autoimmune diseases Atopic eczema Allergic urticaria Allergic rhinitis Hay fever Allergic asthma Anaphylaxis Food allergy common allergies include: Hemolytic disease of the newborn.

Graves' disease Myasthenia gravis Pernicious anemia. Systemic lupus erythematosus Subacute bacterial endocarditis Rheumatoid arthritis. Allergic contact dermatitis Mantoux test.

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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease. In this disease, the immune system of the body mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. It can affect the skin, joints, kidneys, brain, and other organs.

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SLE Abbreviation for systemic lupus erythematosus. SLE systemic lupus erythematosus. SLE abbr. systemic lupus erythematosus SLE abbreviation for systemic lupus erythematosus. SLE Abbreviation for: seizure-like events Service Line Economics slit-lamp examination St Louis encephalitis stress life event systemic lupus erythematosus .

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Medical Definition of SLE (systemic lupus erythematosus) SLE (systemic lupus erythematosus): A chronic inflammatory condition caused by an autoimmune disease. An autoimmune disease occurs when the body's tissues are . The term lupus has been used to identify a number of immune diseases that have similar clinical presentations and laboratory features, but SLE is the most common type of lupus. People are often referring to SLE when they say lupus.

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41 meanings of SLE acronym and SLE abbreviation. Get the Medical definition of SLE by All Acronyms dictionary. Top Definition: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus In Medical dictionary category. Looking for the definition of SLE? Find out what is the full meaning of SLE on! 'Systemic Lupus Erythematosus' is one option -- get in to view more @ The Web's largest and most authoritative acronyms and abbreviations resource.